A Chronological History of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports Bibliography N-Z

(rev 01/05)

KRONOS Bibliography (N-Z)

Copyright © 2000-2004 Joseph R. Svinth All rights reserved.


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Nadi, Aldo. The Living Sword: A Fencer’s Autobiography, edited by Lance C. Lobo (Sunrise, FL: Laureate Press, 1995); see also

Nagamine, Shoshin. The Essence of Okinawan Karate-do (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1976); see also

Nagaboshi, Shifu (formerly Dukes, Terence). The Bodhisattva Warriors: The Origin, Inner Philosophy, History and Symbolism of the Buddhist Martial Art within India and China (York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, 1994); see also The official website is There are various web sites unkind to the author and his methodology, but due to legal action by the author’s organization, these move frequently.

Nakamura, Matazo. Kabuki Backstage, Onstage: An Actor’s Life, translated from the Japanese by Mark Oshima (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1990)

Nakanishi, Akira. Writing Systems of the World: Alphabets, Syllabaries, Pictograms (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1980)

Nakayama, Masatoshi. Dynamic Karate, translated from the Japanese by Herman Kauz (New York: Kodansha International, 1974)

Naoki, Sanjugo. "Kamiizumi Nobutsuma," The East, 36:1, 2000

Naquin, Susan. Millenarian Rebellion in China: The Eight Trigrams Uprising of 1813 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1976)

-----. Shantung Rebellion: The Wang Lun Uprising of 1774 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981)

Nash, Jay Robert. Encyclopedia of World Crime (Wilmette, IL: CrimeBooks, 1990)

National Police Agency, Government of Japan. White Paper on Police 1990 (Excerpt) (Tokyo: Japan Times, 1990)

National Rifle Association. NRA Firearms Fact Book (Washington, DC: National Rifle Association, 3rd edition, 1989)

Nawrocki, Selma and Eleanor Raskovich, "Power Technology Demonstrators for the Future Land Warrior," Army RD&A Bulletin, PB 70-93-2, March-April 1993

Nayak, C. J. "Weapons in the Nâtyasâstra," Journal of the Oriental Institute, 29, (September-December 1979)

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China, volume II, "History of Scientific Thought" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956)

Neikirk, Gregg B. "The ‘Book of Sports’ and Milton’s ‘Sportive Exercises,’" Aethlon, 13:1, Fall 1995

Nelson, Randy F., editor. The Overlook Martial Arts Reader: Classic Writings on Philosophy and Technique (Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 1989)

Nesle, Solange de Mailly. Astrology: History, Symbols, Signs (New York: Inner Traditions International, 1983)

New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967; see also

Newark, Tim. The Barbarians (London: Blandford Press, 1988)

-----. Medieval Warlords (London: Blandford Press, 1987)

-----. Women Warlords (London: Blandford Press, 1989)

Newkirk, Peter. Firefight! (New York: Sterling Publishing, 1989)

Newman, John. Bushido: The Way of the Warrior (New York: Gallery Books, 1989)

"Newsline," Combat, September 1991

Newton, Alex. Central Africa: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1994); see also

-----. West Africa: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1992); see also

Ng, Chin-keong. Trade and Society: The Amoy Network on the China Coast 1683-1735 (Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1983)

Nic Leodhas, Sorche. Claymore and Kilt: Tales of Scottish Kings and Castles (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1967)

Nickel, Helmut. "Games and Pastimes," Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume 5, edited by Joseph R. Strayer (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1985)

Nicol, C. W. Moving Zen: Karate as a Way to Gentleness (New York: William Morrow, 1975)

Nicolle, David. The Mongol Warlords (Poole, Dorset, UK: Firebird Books, 1990)

----- and Christa Hook. The Janissaries (London: Osprey Military, 1995)

----- and Angus McBride. The Age of Charlemagne (London: Osprey Publishing, 1984)

----- and Angus McBride. The Age of Tamerlane (London: Osprey Publishing, 1990)

----- and Angus McBride. The Armies of Islam 7th-11th Centuries (London: Osprey Publishing, 1982)

----- and Angus McBride. Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1983)

----- and Angus McBride. Arthur and the Anglo-Saxon Wars (London: Osprey Publishing, 1984)

----- and Angus McBride. Attila and the Nomad Hordes (London: Osprey Publishing, 1990)

----- and Angus McBride. El Cid and the Reconquista 1050-1492 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1988)

----- and Angus McBride. French Medieval Armies 1000-1300 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1991)

----- and Angus McBride. Hungary and the Fall of Eastern Europe 1000-1568 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1988)

----- and Angus McBride. The Mamluks 1250-1517 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1993)

----- and Angus McBride. Mughul India 1504-1761 (London, Osprey Publishing, 1993)

----- and Angus McBride. The Normans (London: Osprey Publishing, 1987)

----- and Angus McBride. Romano-Byzantine Armies 4th-9th Centuries (London: Osprey Publishing, 1990)

----- and Angus McBride. Rome’s Enemies 5: The Desert Frontier (London: Osprey Publishing, 1991)

----- and Angus McBride. Saladin and the Saracens (London: Osprey Publishing, 1986)

----- and Christopher Rothero. The Venetian Empire 1200-1670 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1989)

Niede, Joan. "Martial Arts and Japanese Nationalism," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 4:2, 1995

Nitobe, Inazo. Bushido: The Soul of Japan (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1969); see also Rennis Buchner, "Inazo Nitobe," and

Niiya, Brian, editor. Japanese American History: An A-to-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present (New York: Facts on File, 1993)

-----, editor. More Than A Game: Sport in the Japanese American Community (Los Angeles: Japanese American National Museum, 2000); see also

Niyekawa, Agnes. Minimum Essential Politeness: A Guide to the Japanese Honorific Language (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1991)

Noble, Graham. "Early Ju-jutsu -- The Challenges," Dragon Times, volume V, 1996; originally appeared in Fighting Arts International, 1987; reprinted at

-----. "An Introduction to W. Barton-Wright (1860-1951) and the Eclectic Art of Bartitsu," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 8:2, 1999; reprinted at

-----. "Graham Noble on Karate Books Part Two: The West Learns about the Empty Hand," Fighting Arts International, 93: 1997,

-----. "Leopold the Great," Fighting Arts International, circa 1987; (at "Unofficial Underground Archives")

-----. "The First Karate Books," Fighting Arts International, 90, 1995; reprinted at

-----. "The Life and Death of the Terrible Turk," Warrior’s Dreams, 3, February 2001; reprinted at

-----. "The Life Story of Karate Master Gogen Yamaguchi," Dragon Times, volume 8, 1997, reprinted at

-----. "Master Choki Motobu: A Real Fighter," Fighting Arts International, 32:6, 1986; the original text appears at; an updated version appears at

-----. "Master Funakoshi’s Karate: The History & Development of the Empty Hand Art, Part I," Dragon Times, volume 3, 1994; see (Note: also reprinted in McCarthy’s Tanpenshu)

-----. "Master Funakoshi’s Karate: The History & Development of the Empty Hand Art, Part II, Fighting Arts International, volumes 60, 61, and 62, mid-1980s (Note: reprinted in McCarthy’s Tanpenshu)

-----. "Master Funakoshi’s Karate: The History & Development of the Empty Hand Art, Part III, Dragon Times, 1995; originally in Fighting Arts International (Note: reprinted in McCarthy’s Tanpenshu)

-----. "Masters of the Shorin-ryu, Part I" Fighting Arts International, 9:2, 1988

-----. "Masters of the Shorin-ryu: Part II", Fighting Arts International, 9:3, 1988; reprinted at

-----. "Masters of the Shorin-ryu Part III: The Life and Times of Chotoku Kyan, Part III." Fighting Arts International,, 9:4 1988; an updated version appears at

-----. "The Odyssey of Yukio Tani," Warrior’s Dreams, 1, 2000; reprinted at

-----. "Mas Togo in America," unpublished manuscript, 1995

-----. "Unarmed Combat and Its Literature," unpublished manuscript, 1992

Norman, F.J. "The Fighting Man of Japan," Dragon Times, volumes 10 and 11, 1996.

Norris, H. T. "Yemenis in the Western Sahara," Journal of African History, 2, 1962

North, Anthony. An Introduction to Islamic Arms (London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1985)

Nurse, Paul M. "The Beginnings of Kodokan Judo: 1882-1938,"

----- "Sir Richard Burton and The Book of the Sword," Hoplos, 7:4, 1996

O’Ballance, Edgar O. "Indonesia," Military Review, December 1963

O’Brien, Richard. The Boxing Companion: An Illustrated Guide to the Sweet Science (New York: Mallard Press, 1991)

O’Brien, Robert and Morris Chafetz. The Encyclopedia of Alcoholism (New York: Facts on File, 2nd edition, 1991)

-----, Sidney Cohen, Glen Evans, and James Fine. The Encyclopedia of Drug Abuse (New York: Facts on File, 2nd edition, 1992)

O’Connell, Robert L. Of Arms and Men: A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989)

O’Donnell, Patrick D. The Irish Faction Fighters of the 19th Century (Dublin: Anvil Books, 1975)

O’Malley, Michael. Keeping Watch: A History of American Time (New York: Penguin Books, 1990)

O’Neill, Frank. "The Brown Man in the Field of Sports," Ring, November 1925

O’Neill, Terry. "‘Fighting Arts’ Interviews Joe Lewis," Fighting Arts, 3:5, 1978

Oates, Joyce Carol. On Boxing (New York: Zebra Books, 1988)

----- and Daniel Halpern, editors. Reading the Fights: The Best Writing about the Most Controversial of Sports (New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1988)

Ohja, Gopesh Kumar. Predictive Astrology of the Hindus (New Delhi: D. B. Taraporevala Sons, 1972)

Okakura, Kakuzo. The Book of Tea (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1961), reprinted at; see also Christopher Benfey, "Tea with Okakura," New York Review of Books, May 25, 2000 and Okakura Tenshin and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, edited by Saeko Yamawaki, Nobuko Sakamoto, Makiko Yamada, and Hitomi Sato (Nagoya, Japan: Nagoya/Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 1999)

Okazaki, Seishiro "Henry." The Science of Self-Defense for Girls & Women (Kahului, HI: Henry Seishiro Okazaki, 1929); see also

Oliver, Roland and Anthony Atmore. The African Middle Ages 1400-1800 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981)

----- and Anthony Atmore. Africa Since 1800 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 3rd edition, 1981)

----- and Michael Crowder, editors. Cambridge Encyclopedia of Africa (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981)

----- and Gervase Mathew, editors. Oxford History of East Africa, volume I (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968)

Olivová, Vera. Sports and Games in the Ancient World, translated from the Czech by D. Orpington (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984)

Orser, Charles E. Jr. "The Father of Atlantis, Ignatius Donnelly, Created the Modern Myth and Molded Pseudo-Archaeology," Discovering Archeology, 2:5 (Nov/Dec 2000)

Ortega y Gasset, José. Meditations on Hunting, translated from the Spanish by Howard B. Wescott (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1985)

Osofsky, Gilbert, editor. Puttin’ On Ole Massa: The Slave Narrative of Henry Bibb, William Wells Brown, and Solomon Northup (New York: Harper & Row, 1969)

Ouyang, Yung. "The Elevation of Taekkyon from Folk Game to Martial Art," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 6:4, 1997

Overmyer, Daniel L. Folk Buddhist Religion: Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976)

The Oxford Companion to World Sports and Games, John Arlott, editor (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975)

Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2nd edition, 1989)

Oyama, Masutatsu. The Kyokushin Way: Mas Oyama’s Karate Philosophy (Tokyo: Japan Publications, 1979)

Pagadi, Setumadhavarao S. Shivaji (New Delhi: National Book Trust, 1983)

Pagels, Elaine. Adam, Eve, and the Serpent (New York: Vintage Books, 1989)

-----. The Origin of Satan (New York: Vintage Books, 1996)

Pallis, Alexander. In the Days of the Janissaries (London: Hutchison, 1951)

Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War (New York: Random House, 1979)

P’an Shih. "Theatrical Swordplay and Actual Combat with Bayonet on the Battlefield," translated from the Chinese by RS, Peking Jen-Min Jih-Pao, December 13, 1976

Panek, Richard. "That Sneaky Solstice," Natural History, June 2000

Pardy, George T. "Gang Wars and Politics of the Prize Ring," The Ring, October 1937

Parker, Dan. "Slaughter on Eighth Avenue," Collier’s, January 22, 1944

Parkyns, Thomas. The Inn-Play, or Cornish-Hugg Wrestler (Nottingham, England: William Ayscouh, 1713); portions appear online at

Parise, Frank, editor. The Book of Calendars (New York: Facts on File, 1982)

Parrinder, Geoffrey. African Mythology (New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1986)

Passchen, Johann G. Vollstandiges Ring-Buch, translated from the German by Eli Steenput,, 12/2000

Pate, James L. "Vested Interests," Soldier of Fortune, September 1993

Patterson, Richard. The Train Robbery Era (Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing, 1991)

Patton, George S., Jr. "The Form and Use of the Saber," Journal of the U. S. Cavalry Association, March 1913; see also and

Paul, Jim. Catapult (New York: Villard Books, 1991)

Payne-Gallwey, Ralph. The Crossbow, Medieval and Modern, Military and Sporting, Its Construction, History & Management, with a Treatise on the Balista and Catapult of the Ancients and an Appendix on the Catapult, Balista & the Turkish Bow (New York: Bramhall House, 1968)

Pearl, Bill and Gary T. Moran. Getting Stronger (Bolinas, CA: Shelter Publications, 1986); see also

Pearl, Richard M. 1001 Questions Answered about the Mineral Kingdom (New York: Dover Publications, 1995)

Pearson, Geoffrey. Hooligan: A Story of Respectable Fears (New York: Schocken Books, 1984)

Pearson, John. Arena: The Story of the Colosseum (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973)

-----. The Life of Ian Fleming (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966)

Pease, Stephen E. PSYWAR: Psychological Warfare in Korea 1950-1953 (Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1992); see also

Peers, C. J. and Angus McBride. Ancient Chinese Armies 1500-200 BC (London: Osprey Publishing, 1990)

----- and David Sque. Medieval Chinese Armies 1260-1520 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1992)

Pegg, Richard. "Master Sun’s The Art of War," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 2:2, 1993

Peiser, Benny Josef. "Western Theories about the Origins of Sport in Ancient China," The Sports Historian, 16 (May 1996)

Pence, Ken R. "A Matter of Life," Soldier of Fortune, July 1980

Perez, Herb. "Traditional vs. Sport: Will the Real Taekwondo Please Stand?" Black Belt, Part I: February 1998; Part II, March 1998

Perla, Peter P. The Art of Wargaming (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1990)

Perry, Elizabeth J. Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China 1845-1945 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1980)

-----. "Rural Violence in Socialist China," The China Quarterly, 103, September 1985

Perrin, Noel. Giving Up the Gun: Japan’s Reversion to the Sword, 1543-1879 (Boston: David R. Godine, 1979)

Peters, Jens. Philippines: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 4th edition, 1991); see also

Peterson, Harold L. American Knives (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1958)

Peterson, Kirtland C. Mind of the Ninja: Exploring the Inner Power (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1984)

Petter, Nicholaes. Clear Instructions to the Excellent Art of Wrestling. (Amsterdam: Johannes Janssonius Van Waesberge, 1674); translated from the German by Eli Steenput,, 10/2000

Petzal, David C. Encyclopedia of Sporting Firearms (New York: Facts on File, 1991)

Phillips, Patricia. The Scientific Lady: A Social History of Women’s Scientific Interests 1520-1918 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990)

Phillips, T.R., editor. Roots of Strategy, Book I (Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1985)

Pickthall, Mohammed Marmaduke. The Meaning of the Glorious Koran (New York: Mentor Books, 1953); reprinted at

Pierce, J. Kingston. "Evolution on Trial," American History, August 2000;

Pieter, Willy. "Body & Mind in Medieval & Pre-Modern Japanese Martial Arts," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 2:4, 1993

-----. "Korean Martial Sports," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3:1, 1994

-----. "Research in Martial Sports: A Review," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3:2, 1994

----- and Dennis R. Taaffe. "The Oregon Taekwondo Research Project: Results and Recommendations," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 1:1, 1992;; see also

Pinch, William R. "Subaltern Sadhus? Political Ascetics in Indian Myth, Memory, and History," unpublished paper, May 1997,

Platonov, Andrei. The Fierce and Beautiful World, introduction by Yevgeny Yevtushenko, translated from the Russian by Joseph Barnes (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1970)

Platt, Suzy, editor. Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations Requested from the Congressional Research Service (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1989)

Plimpton, George. Shadow Box (London: Simon and Schuster, 1989)

Plummer, William. Buttercups and Strong Boys: A Sojourn at the Golden Gloves (New York: Viking, 1989)

Plutarch. Eight Great Lives, edited and translated from the Latin by C. A. Robinson, Jr. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1964); for online texts, see

-----. Fall of the Roman Republic, translated from the Latin by Rex Warner (New York: Penguin Books, 1972)

-----. The Rise and Fall of Athens: Nine Greek Lives, translated from the Latin by Ian Scott-Kilvert (New York: Penguin Books, 1988)

Poe, Edgar Allan. Tales of Mystery and Imagination (Ware, Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993); see also

Pohl, John M. D. and Angus McBride. Aztec, Mixtec and Zapotec Armies (London: Osprey Publishing, 1991)

Poliakoff, Michael B. Combat Sports in the Ancient World: Competition, Violence, and Culture (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987); see also

-----. "Jacob, Job, and Other Wrestlers: Reception of Greek Sport by Jews and Christians in Antiquity," Journal of Sport History, 11:2, Summer 1984,

Pollack, Andrew. "How Crass Commerce Taints Soul of Martial Arts," New York Times, January 6, 1997, A4.

Polybius. The Rise of the Roman Empire, translated from the Latin by Ian Scott-Kilvert (New York: Penguin Books, 1979); a different translation appears at

Pomeroy, Sarah B. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity (New York: Schocken Books, 1975)

Pope, W. R. "The Pistol," Journal of the U. S. Cavalry Association, November 1913

Popovic, Tatyana. Prince Marko: The Hero of South Slavic Epics (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1988)

Porta, John and Jack McCabe. "The Karate of Chojun Miyagi," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3:3, 1994

The Portable Milton, edited by Douglas Bush (New York: Penguin Books, 1977)

Posner, Gerald L. Warlords of Crime (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988)

Powe, Edward L. Black Martial Arts (Volume I) Combat Games of Northern Nigeria (Madison, WI: Dan Aiki Publications, 1994)

-----. Black Martial Arts (Volume II) Combat Games of the African Indian Ocean (Madagascar, Reunion, Comores) (Madison, WI: Dan Aiki Publications, 2001)

-----. Black Martial Arts IV: African Arts of Stick-fighting, Part I: Northern Nguni (Madison, WI: Dan Aiki Publications, 2002)

-----. The Lore of the African Indian Ocean (Madison, WI: Armchair Travelers, 1996)

Powell, George H. Duelling Stories of the Sixteenth Century (London: A. H. Bullen, 1904); some extracts appear at

Power, Eileen. Medieval People (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1955)

Power, Guy H. "Budô in Japanese and U.S. Policies," Unpublished M.P.A. thesis, San Jose State University, May 1998

-----. "The Pen and the Sword: The Budo Ban, Part II," Dragon Times, 14, 1999

Powers, Jack. "Back when Boxing Was a Man’s Sport," True, December 1962

Pozorski, Shelia and Thomas Pozorski, "Early Andean Cities," Scientific American, June 1994

Prebble, John. Glencoe: The Story of the Massacre (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966)

Preston, Douglas. "Cannibals of the Canyon," New Yorker, November 30, 1998

Preston, Richard A. and Sydney F. Wise. Men in Arms (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 4th edition, 1979)

Price, Percival. Bells and Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983)

Prip-Møller, J. Chinese Buddhist Monasteries: Their Plan and Its Function as a Setting for Buddhist Monastic Life (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2nd edition, 1967)

Pritsak, Omeljan. "The Origin of Rus," The Russian Review, July 1977; see also

Prugh, George S. Vietnam Studies: Law at War, Vietnam 1964-1973 (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1991)

Pukui, Mary Kawena and Samuel H. Elbert. Hawaiian Dictionary (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, revised and enlarged edition, 1986)

Quaritch Wales, H. G. Ancient South-East Asian Warfare (London: Bernard Quaritch, 1952)

Quarrie, Bruce. Beginner’s Guide to Wargaming (Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, UK: Patrick Stephens, 1987)

Quennell, Peter, editor. The Prodigal Rake: Memoirs of William Hickey (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1962)

Querubin, Emanuel. "It All Began 800 Years Ago," Black Belt, June 1966


Rachowiecki, Rob. Ecuador & the Galápagos Islands (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1992); see also

-----. Peru: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1991); see also

Radford, Peter. The Celebrated Captain Barclay: Sport, Money and Fame in Regency Britain (London: Headline, 2001)

Rajput, A. B. Social Customs and Practices in Pakistan (Islamabad: R. C. D. Cultural Institute, Pakistan Branch, 1977)

Rahman, Fazlur. Major Themes of the Qur’an (Minneapolis: Bibliotecha Islamica, 1980)

Ralston, David B. Importing the European Army: The Introduction of European Military Techniques and Institutions into the Extra-European World, 1600-1914 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, paperback edition, 1996)

Random, Michel. The Martial Arts, translated from the French by Judy Boothroyd (London: Octopus, 1978)

Rankin, Hugh F. The Golden Age of Piracy (New York: Colonial Williamsburg, 1969)

Ranlet, Philip. "The British, Slaves, and Smallpox in Revolutionary Virginia," The Journal of Negro History, 84:3 (Summer, 1999)

Rao, Velcheru Narayana, translator, assisted by Gene H. Roghair. Siva’s Warriors: The Basava Purâna of Pâlkuriki Somanâtha (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990)

Raschke, Wendy J., editor. The Archaeology of the Olympics (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988)

-----. "Aulos and Athlete: The Function of the Flute Player in Greek Athletics," Arete: The Journal of Sport Literature, 2:2, Spring 1985

Ratchnevsky, Paul. Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy, edited and translated from the German by Thomas Nivison Haining (Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwood, 1992)

Rath, Richard Cullen. "Drums and Power: Ways of Creolizing Music in Coastal South Carolina and Georgia, 1730-1790,"

Rawicz, Slavomir, with Ronald Downing. The Long Walk: A Gamble for Life (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956)

Rawson, Mitchell. "Boxing’s Bare-Knuckle Legacy," Sports Illustrated, June 6, 1960

Rearick, Charles. Pleasures of the Belle Epoque: Entertainment & Festivity in Turn-of-the-Century France (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985)

Rechung, Rinpoche Jampal Kunzang. Tibetan Medicine (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1976)

Reed, Philip and Richard Muggeridge. Savate: Martial Art of France (Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 1985); see also (in French)

Rediker, Marcus B. Society and Culture among Anglo-American Deep Sea Sailors, 1700-1750 (University of Pennsylvania: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1982)

Reid, Anthony. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450-1680, volume I (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988)

Reid, Howard and Michael Croucher. The Fighting Arts: Great Masters of the Martial Arts (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983)

Reischauer, Edwin O. and John K. Fairbank. East Asia: The Great Tradition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, revised edition, 1960)

Rheingold, Howard. Virtual Reality (New York: Summit Books, 1991); see also

Rice, Edward. Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: the secret agent who made the pilgrimage to Mecca, discovered the Kama Sutra, and brought the Arabian Nights to the West (New York: HarperPerennial, 1991)

Richie, Donald. Memoirs of the Warrior Kumagai: A Historical Novel (Rutland, VT and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1998)

------, editor. Rashomon: A Film by Akira Kurosawa (New York: Grove Press, 1969)

Rickman, David. Cowboys of the Old West Coloring Book (New York: Dover Publications, 1985)

-----. Northwest Coast Indians Coloring Book (New York: Dover Publications, 1984)

Riefenstahl, Leni. The Last of the Nuba (New York: Harper & Row, 1974); see also the review at

Rinear, Charles E. The Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1986)

Rink, Paul E. "Nathaniel Bowditch: The Practical Navigator," American Heritage, 11:5, August 1960

Riordan, James W. "Tsarist Russia and International Sport," Stadion, 14:2, 1988

Roberts, Keith and Angus McBride. Soldiers of the English Civil War (1): Infantry (London: Osprey Publishing, 1989)

Roberts, Randy. "Eighteenth Century Boxing," Journal of Sport History, 4:3, Fall 1977,

-----. Papa Jack: Jack Johnson and the Era of White Hopes (New York: The Free Press, 1983)

Robertson, John. "An Interview with Kotani Sensei," American Judo, September - December 1978

Robinson, B.W. The Arts of the Japanese Sword (London: Faber and Faber, 1961)

Robinson, Daniel and Joe Cummings. Vietnam, Laos & Cambodia: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1991); see also

Robson, Roger. Cumberland and Westmorland Wrestling (Carlisle, UK: Bookcase, 1999); an extract appears at

Rodd, Francis. "Kahena, Queen of the Berbers," Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, 3, 1923-1925; see also

Rogaski, Ruth. "Beyond Benevolence: A Confucian Women’s Shelter in Treaty-Port China." Journal of Women’s History, 8:4 (Winter 1997)

Rogers, Dave. The Complete Avengers (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989); see also

Rogerson, Barnaby. Morocco (Chester, CT: Voyager Books, 1989)

Rohlen, Thomas P. Japan’s High Schools (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983)

Rominger, Donald W. Jr. "From Playing Field to Battleground: The United States Navy V-5 Preflight Program in World War II," Journal of Sport History, 12:5, Winter 1985,

Rommel, Erwin. Attacks (Provo, UT: Athena Press, 1979)

Roochnik, David L. "Illiad XXIII: The Tragicomedy of Athletics," Arete: The Journal of Sport Literature, 3:2, Spring 1986

Rorabaugh, W. J. The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979)

Rose, H. J. "The Greek Agones," Arete: The Journal of Sport Literature, 3:1, Fall 1985

Rossabi, Morris. Voyager from Xanadu: Rabban Sauma and the First Journey from China to the West (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1992)

Rossi, Francesco. Mediaeval Arms and Armour, translated from the Italian by Jennifer Pearson and Susanna Perzolli (Wigston, Leicester, UK: Magna Books, 1990)

Roth, Ariel A. "The Dishonor of Dueling,"

Roth, Charles B. "The Muscle Head Always Wins," Esquire, June 1949

Rothero, Christopher. The Armies of Crécy and Poitiers (London: Osprey Publishing, 1981)

-----. The Scottish and Welsh Wars 1250-1400 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1984)

Rottman, Gordon L. and Ron Volstad. Inside the U.S. Army Today (London: Osprey Publishing, 1988)

Rowse, A. L. Homosexuals in History (New York: Dorset Press, 1977); see also

Runciman, Stephen. The First Crusade (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980)

-----. A History of the Crusades, volume II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954)

-----. A History of the Crusades, volume III (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954)

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians (New York: Praeger, 1991)

Rust, Edna and Art Rust Jr. Art Rust’s Illustrated History of the Black Athlete (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1985)

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St. Vincent, David. Iran: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1992); see also

Sa’di, Muslih-ud-din. Gulistan, translated from the Persian by James Ross (Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1865);

Sachs, Curt. The History of Musical Instruments (New York: W. W. Norton, 1940)

-----. World History of the Dance, translated from the German by Bessie Schönberg (New York: W. W. Norton, 1937; paperback 1965)

Saitoti, Tepilit Ole. The Worlds of a Maasai Warrior (New York: Dorset Press, 1986)

Sakamaki, Shunzo. Ryukyu: A Bibliographic Guide to Okinawan Studies (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1963)

Sakihara, Mitsugu. A Brief History of Early Okinawa based on the Omoro Soshi (Tokyo: Honpo Shoseki Press, 1987)

Salmonson, Jessica Amanda. The Encyclopedia of Amazons (New York: Paragon House, 1991)

Salzman, Mark. Iron & Silk (New York: Vintage Departures, 1990)

Sammons, Jeffrey T. Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 1988)

----- "Race and Sport: A Critical, Historical Examination," Journal of Sport History, 21:1, 1994,

Sánchez-Jankowski, Martín. Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991)

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Sandesara, Bhogilal Jayachandbhai and Ramanial Nagarji Mehta. Mallapurana: A Rare Sanskrit Text on Indian Wrestling especially as practised by the Jyesthimallas (Baroda, India: Oriental Institute, 1964)

Sani, Asrul. "Three Village Sketches from Sumatra," Atlantic Monthly, June 1956

Sansone, David. Greek Athletics and the Genesis of Sport (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988)

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Sawai, Kenichi. Taiki-Ken: The Essence of Kung-Fu (Tokyo: Japan Publications, 1976)

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Scarborough, John. "Galen on Roman Amateur Athletics," Arete: The Journal of Sport Literature, 2:2, Spring 1985

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Schoenberger, Dale T. The Gunfighters (Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1971)

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Schwartz, Michael L. and Geoffrey R. Fernie. "Biomechanical study of full-contact karate contrasted with boxing," Journal of Neurosurgeons, 64, 1986; see also and

Seagrave, Sterling. Yellow Rain (New York: M. Evans, 1981); see also

Seaton, Albert. The Horsemen of the Steppes: The Story of the Cossacks (New York: Hippocrene Books, 1985)

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Seckler, Jonathan. "Swordsmanship and Neo-Confucianism: The Tengu’s Art," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 1:2, 1992

Seeley, J. R. The Expansion of England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971)

Seidel, Anna. "A Taoist Immortal of the Ming Dynasty: Chang San-feng," Self and Society in Ming Thought, edited by William Theodore de Bary and the Conference on Ming Thought (New York: Columbia University Press, 1970)

Sekunda, Nick and Simon Chew. The Persian Army 560-330 BC (London: Osprey Publishing, 1992)

Sekunda, Nick and Angus McBride. The Ancient Greeks (London: Osprey Publishing, 1986)

----- and Angus McBride. The Army of Alexander the Great (London: Osprey Publishing, 1984)

Sekunda, Nick, Simon Northwood, and Richard Hook. Early Roman Armies (London: Osprey, 1995)

Senger, Harro von. The Book of Strategems, edited and translated from the German by Myron B. Gubitz (New York: Viking, 1991)

"Serenity, through Violence," Black Belt, January 1964

Sergeant, Harriet. Shanghai: Collision Point of Cultures 1918-1939 (New York: Crown Publishers, 1990)

Sercl, M. and O. Jaros. "The Mechanisms of Cerebral Concussion in Boxing and Their Consequences," World Neurology, 3, May 1962

Setton, Kenneth M., editor. The Age of Chivalry (Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1969)

Severin, Tim. In Search of Genghis Khan (New York: Macmillan, 1992)

-----. The Brendan Voyage (New York: Avon, 1979)

-----. The Jason Voyage (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985)

Seward, Desmond. The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders (London: Penguin Books, revised edition, 1995)

Seymour, Percy. The Birth of Christ (London: Virgin Publishing, 1999)

Shallis, Michael. "Time and Cosmology," The Nature of Time (Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1986)

Sharma, Gopi N. Social Life in Medieval Rajasthan (1500-1800 A. D.) with Special Reference to the Impact of Mughal Influence (Agra: Lakshmi Narain Agarwal, 1968)

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Shenkman, Richard. "I Love Paul Revere, Whether He Rode or Not", Warren Harding: A New Collection by the Author of Legends, Lies, and Cherished Myths of American History (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991)

-----. Legends, Lies & Cherished Myths of American History (New York: William Morrow, 1988)

Shepard, J. "Some Problems of Russo-Byzantine Relations c. 860 - c. 1050," The Slavonic and East European Review, 52:126, June 1974

Sheppard, M. C. ff. "Silat: the Malay art of self-defence," The Straits Times Annual, 1958

Sheridan, James E. Chinese Warlord: The Career of Feng Yü-hsiang (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1966)

Sifakis, Carl. The Encyclopedia of Gambling (New York: Facts on File, 1990)

Silver, George. Paradoxes of Defense (London: Edward Bloum, 1599);

Silverberg, Robert. The Pueblo Revolt (New York: Weybright and Talley, 1970)

Simkin, Margaret T. Letters from Szechwan 1923-1944 (Burnsville, NC: Friend in the Orient Committee, 1978)

Simkins, Michael. Warriors of Rome: An Illustrated Military History of the Roman Legions (London: Blandford Press, 1988)

----- and Ronald Embleton. The Roman Army from Caesar to Trajan (London: Osprey Publishing, 1984)

-----. The Roman Army from Hadrian to Constantine (London: Osprey Publishing, 1979)

Simmons, Garner. Peckinpah: A Portrait in Montage (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1982)

Singer, Kurt. Mirror, Sword, and Jewel: The Geometry of Japanese Life (New York: Kodansha International, 1989)

Singh. "The Battle of the Golden Temple," Soldier of Fortune, January 1985

Singh, E. Nilakanta. "Classical Heritage of Nata Movements," Journal of the Oriental Institute Baroda, 18, September 1968-June 1969

Singleton, Ken. An Introduction to Karate (London: McDonald Optima, 1989)

Sinnott, Susan. Extraordinary Asian Pacific Americans (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1993)

Slaby, Andrew E. Aftershock (New York: Villard Books, 1989)

Slatta, Richard W. Cowboys of the Americas (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990)

-----. Gauchos and the Vanishing Frontier (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992)

Smaldone, Joseph P. "Firearms in the Central Sudan: A Reevaluation," Journal of African History, 13:4, 1972

-----. Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate (Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1977)

Smith, A. G. Knights and Armor Coloring Book (New York: Dover Publications, 1985)

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Smith, David. "Little Wars for Little People: Sport, Games, and Leisure Time in the Work and Life of H.G. Wells," Arete, 2:2, Spring 1985

Smith, Red. The Red Smith Reader, edited by Dave Anderson (New York: Random House, 1982)

-----, editor. Press Box: Red Smith’s Favorite Sports Stories (New York: Avon Discus, 1983)

Smith, Robert W. "Ch’en Wei-ming, Cheng Man-ch’ing, and the Difference between Strength and Intrinsic Energy," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 6:1 (1997)

-----. Chinese Boxing: Masters and Methods (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Press, 1990)

-----. Hsing-I: Chinese Mind-Body Boxing (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1981)

-----. Martial Musings: A Portrayal of Martial Arts in the 20th Century (Erie, PA: Via Media Publishing, 1999); see also

-----, editor. Secrets of Shaolin Temple Boxing (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1964)

----- and Allen Pittman. Pa-Kua: Eight Trigram Boxing (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1989)

Smith, Tom. "SOF Conducts First Test of New Russian Body Armor," Soldier of Fortune, May 1984

Sodergren, Ernest. "The Wrestling Writers Association of America Official Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame No. 37 – The Great Gama – Inducted Februray [sic] 1979," Minnesota Wrestling News Magazine, November 21, 1979

Sone, Monica. Nisei Daughter (Seattle: University of Washington, 1979)

Sorrell, Walter. The Swiss (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972)

Spalding, Tim, editor. "Ancient Astrology and Divination on the Web."

Spence, Jonathan D. Chinese Roundabout (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992)

-----. The Death of Woman Wang (New York: Penguin Books, 1979)

-----. God’s Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan (New York: W. W. Norton, 1996); see also

-----. The Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci (New York: Elisabeth Sifton/Penguin Books, 1984)

Spiessbach, Michael F. "Bodhidharma, Meditating Monk, Martial Arts Master or Make-Believe?" Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 1:4, 1992

Spillane, John D. "Five Boxers," British Medical Journal, November 10, 1962

Spivey, Nigel. "Faster, Higher, Stronger?" Times Literary Supplement, July 19, 1996

Spring, Christopher. African Arms and Armor (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993); see also

Spuler, Berthold. The Mongols in History, translated from the German by Geoffrey Wheeler (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1971)

Srám, Josef. "Chinese Acrobatics of the Han Period," Eastern Horizon Monthly Review, 3:5, May 1964

Stafford, Peter, editor. Psychedelics Encyclopedia (Berkley, CA: Ronin Publishing, 3rd edition, 1992)

Stahlberg, Roberta Helmer. China’s Puppets (San Francisco: China Books, 1984)

Stanley, David. Tahiti-Polynesia Handbook (Chico, CA: Moon Publications, 1989)

Stark, Suzanne J. Female Tars: Women aboard Ship in the Age of Sail (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996)

Steele, Ian K. Warpaths: Invasions of North America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994)

Steiner, Stan. The New Indians (New York: Harper & Row, 1968)

Stemman, Roy. Atlantis and the Lost Lands (London: Danbury Press, 1976)

Sterns, Peter N., editor. The Other Side of Western Civilization: Readings in Everyday Life, volume II (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973)

Stevens, John. Abundant Peace: The Biography of Morihei Ueshiba, Founder of Aikido (Boston: Shambhala, 1987)

-----. The Sword of No-Sword: Life of the Master Warrior Tesshu (Boston: Shambhala, 1989)

Stewart, R. J. The Elements of Prophecy (Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset, UK: Element Books, 1990)

Stiebing, William H. Jr. Ancient Astronauts, Cosmic Collisions and Other Popular Theories about Man’s Past (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1984)

Stillman, Nigel and Nigel Tallis. Armies of the Ancient Near East 3,000 B.C. to 539 B.C. (Worthing, Sussex, UK: Wargames Research Group, 1984)

Stockmann, Hardy. Kick Boxing Muay-thai: The Art of Siamese Un-armed Combat (Burbank, CA: 1976)

Stone, Elizabeth C. and Paul Zimansky, "The Tapestry of Power in a Mesopotamian City," Scientific American, April 1995

Stone, George Cameron. A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration, and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times (New York: Jack Brussel, 1961)

Stone, Merlin. When God was a Woman (San Diego, CA: Harvest/HBJ, 1976)

Stonehenge (John Henry Walsh). British Rural Sports: Comprising Shooting, Hunting, Coursing, Fishing, Hawking, Racing, Boating, Pedestrianism, with all Rural Games and Amusements (London: Frederick Warne, 9th edition, 1871)

Storey, Robert. Hong Kong, Macau & Canton: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1991); see also

Stowe, Michael A. "Chomping at the Bit: Researchers Find the First Ridden Horses," Discovering Archaeology, 2:5 (November/December 2000)

Stratou, Dora. The Greek Dances: Our Living Link with Antiquity, translated from the Greek by Amy Mims-Argyrakis (Athens: Angelos Klissiounis, 1966)

Strauss, Robert. Tibet: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1992); see also

-----, Chris Taylor, and Tony Wheeler. Japan: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1991); see also

Streeter, Floyd B. The Complete and Authentic Life of Ben Thompson, Man With a Gun (New York: Frederick Fell, 1957)

Strutt, Joseph. The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England (London: Methuen, 1801)

Sturdevant, Saundra Pollock and Brenda Stoltzfus. Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the U.S. Military in Asia (New York: New Press, 1992); see also

Sturluson, Snorri. King Harald’s Saga, translated from the Norse by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson (New York: Penguin Books, 1966);

Styers, John. Cold Steel (Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 1974)

Su, Zheng. "Female Heroes and Moonish Lovers: Women’s Paradoxical Identities in Modern Chinese Songs," Journal of Women’s History, 8:4 (Winter 1997)

Subramuniyaswami, Satguru Sivaya. Dancing with Siva (Concord, CA: Himalayan Academy, 1991)

Sugawara, Makoto. Lives of Master Swordsmen (Tokyo: East Publications, 1988); see also

Sugar, Bert Randolph, editor. The Ring Record Book and Boxing Encyclopaedia (New York: Atheneum, 1981)

Sullivan, Constance, editor. Spirit of Sport (Boston: New York Graphic Society/Little, Brown, 1985)

Sun, Tzu. The Art of War. For a bibliography, see; for an online translation, see

Translated from the Chinese by Thomas Cleary (Boston: Shambhala, 1988) (RECOMMENDED)

Translated from the Chinese by Lionel Giles, edited by James Clavell (New York: Delacorte Press, 1983); (NOT RECOMMENDED [DATED])

Translated from the Chinese by Samuel B. Griffith (New York: Oxford University Press, 1963) (RECOMMENDED)

Translated from the Chinese, with introduction and commentary by Ralph D. Sawyer (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994) (RECOMMENDED)

Translated from the Chinese by Yuan Shibing, commentary by Tao Hanzhang (New York: Sterling Publishing, 1987)

Translated from the Chinese by R. L. Wing (New York: Doubleday, 1988)

Sutton, Nigel. "The Development of Zheng Man-qing Taijiquan in Malaysia," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3:1, 1994; see also

-----. "Gongfu, Guoshu & Wushu: State Appropriation of the Martial Arts in Modern China," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 2:3, 1993

Suvorov, Viktor. Spetsnaz: The Inside Story of the Soviet Special Forces (New York: Pocket Books, 1990); see also

Suzuki, Tatsuo. Karate-Do (New York: Perigee Books, 1984)

Svinth, Joseph R. "A Celebration of Tradition and Community: Sumo in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1943," Columbia: The Magazine of Pacific Northwest History, 13:2 (Summer 1999); an updated version appears at

-----. "A Question regarding the Number of Kendoka Living in North America before World War II," Journal of Japanese Sword Arts, 11/6-7-8 (June-July-Aug 1999); reprinted at

-----. "Aikido Comes to America: September 1935,"

-----. "Amateur Boxing in Pre-World War II Japan: The Military Connection,"

-----. "An Introduction to Training in Rifle-Bayonet Fighting in the US Military,"

-----. "Benjamin Franklin Roller -- A Pioneer of Angles and Feuds," Wrestling Then & Now 1998 Annual; an updated version appears online at

-----. "Combative Sports and Muscular Theater: Judo, Boxing, and Freestyle Wrestling." Chapter for More Than A Game: Sport in the Japanese American Community, 1885 to the Present, edited by Brian Niiya (Los Angeles: Japanese American National Museum, 2000); an abridged version appeared in Pacific Citizen, Holiday Issue, 129:23 (December 1999)

-----. "Death under the Spotlight: The Manuel Velasquez Boxing Fatality Collection,"

-----. "‘Fighting Spirit’: Korean Boxers in the United States, 1926-1945," Occasional Papers, a publication of the Korean American Historical Society, 4 (1999); an updated version appears at

-----. "Japanese American Wrestlers at the University of Washington, 1911-1942,"

-----. "Jigoro Kano in North America,"

-----. "Knightly Spirit: Ninety-five Years of Pacific Northwest Kendo," Pacific Northwest Kendo Federation 25th Annual Kendo Tournament Program, November 13, 1999; reprinted at

-----. "Masato Tamura, Ryoichi Iwakiri, and the Fife Judo Dojo," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 8:1, 1999

-----. "Pacific Northwest Judo: First Generation," serialized in the North American Post on November 26, 1997 and December 5, 1997. An updated version appears online at

-----. "Pacific Northwest Judo: The Seattle Dojo, 1924-1953,"

-----. "Professor Yamashita Goes to Washington," Aikido Journal, 25:2, 1998; an updated version appears at; see also

-----. "Robert ‘Ripper’ Takeshita,"

-----. "Sizing ‘Em Up: Statistical Relationships between Various Combative Sports in the Japanese American Communities of the Pacific Northwest, circa 1910 to circa 1942,"

-----. "Squared Rings and Kimchee: Pre-1950 Korean Boxers," KoreAM Journal (October 1999)

-----. "Targets,"

-----. "The Exemplar of the Piston Attack: The Imperial Japanese Boxer Tsuneo Horiguchi,"

-----. "The Evolution of Women’s Judo, 1900-1945,"

-----. "The School of Hard Knocks: Seattle’s Kurosaka/Tentoku Kan Judo Dojo 1928-1942," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 7:1, 1998

-----. "Tommy Kono,"

-----. "Ukiyo-e: Sumo as Martial Art," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 8:4 (1999)

-----. "Women Who Would Not Be Sheep: Women’s Combative Sports in the Twentieth Century,"; for a Swedish-language summary, see; reprinted with permission at

Swaney, Deanna. Bolivia: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1988); see also

-----. Iceland, Greenland & the Faroe Islands: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1991); see also

----- and Myra Shackley. Zimbabwe, Botswana & Namibia: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1992); see also

Swanson, John T. "The Myth of Trans-Saharan Trade during the Roman Era," The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 8:4, 1975; see also

Sweet, Waldo E. Sport and Recreation in Ancient Greece: A Sourcebook with Translations (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Swenson, G.W.P. Pictorial History of the Rifle (New York: Bonanza Books, 1972)

Swift, Jack E. "The Roar of the Tigers," Black Belt, November 1968; see also letters to the editor in the May 1969 issue

Swinton, Ernest D. The Defence of Duffer’s Drift (Wayne, NJ: Avery Publishing Group, 1986); reprinted at

Tacitus. The Agricola and the Germania, translated from the Latin by H. Mattingly and S. A. Handford (New York: Penguin Books, 1980); a different translation appears at and

-----. The Annals of Imperial Rome, translated from the Latin by Michael Grant (New York: Penguin Books, 1971); a different translation appears at

"Taekwondo Turmoil: Who’s in Charge?" The Fighter International, 1:1 (Spring 1987), 31.

Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from A Different Shore: A History of Asian-Americans (New York: Penguin Books, 1990)

Takuan, Soho. The Unfettered Mind, translated from the Japanese by William Scott Wilson (New York: Kodansha International, 1986)

Tannahill, Reay. Flesh and Blood: A History of the Cannibal Complex (New York: Stein and Day, 1975)

-----. Food in History (New York: Stein and Day, 1973)

-----. Sex in History (New York: Scarborough Books, 1982)

Tao, Jing-shen. The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China: A Study of Sinicization (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976)

Tappan, Mel. Survival Guns (Rogue River, OR: Janus Press, 1976)

Tarassuk, Leonid and Claude Blair, editors. The Complete Encyclopaedia of Arms & Weapons (London: B. T. Batsford, 1977)

Taylor, Chuck. "Handgun Stopping Power Revisited," Soldier of Fortune, September 1979; see also

Taylor, Colin F. and William C. Sturtevant, editors. The Native Americans: The Indigenous People of North America (New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1991)

Taylor, Kim. "The History of Iaido: A Japanese Sword Art," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 2:3, 1993

Taylor, William B. Drinking, Homicide, and Rebellion in Colonial Mexican Villages (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1979)

Tegnér, Bruce. Savate: French Foot Fighting (Hollywood, CA: Thor Publishing, 1960)

Terry, T. Philip. "Jiujutsu: Japanese Self-Defense without Weapons," Outing, 41, 1901-1903

Thomas, Chester A. and William F. Brown II. "Karate: Pictures Tell the Story," Argosy, October 1953

Thompson, Jeoff. Karate: The Pursuit of Excellence (New York: Gallery Books, 1988)

Thompson, Robert Ferris. Face of the Gods: Art and Altars of Africa and the African Americans (New York: Museum for African Art, 1993); see also

Thornton, John. Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992)

-----. The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition 1641-1718 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983)

Thorpe, Lewis. Einhard and Notker the Stammerer: Two Lives of Charlemagne (New York: Penguin Books, 1969); for other translations of Einhard, see

Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War, edited in translation from the Greek by Sir Richard Livingstone (London: Oxford University Press, 1978); see also

Tierney, Brian. The Middle Ages (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 4th edition, 1984)

Tigh, Mark. "Spyglass Alpha," Soldier of Fortune, May 1979

Tillotson, G. H. R. Mughal India (London: Penguin Books, 1990)

Tincey, John and Gerry Embleton. The British Army 1660-1704 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1994)

Tod, James. Annals and Antiquities of Rajast’han or, The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India (New Delhi: K.M.N. Publishers, 1971)

Tohei, Koichi. Ki in Daily Life (Tokyo: Ki No Kenkyukai HQ, 1990)

-----. Kiatsu (Tokyo: Ki No Kenykai HQ, 1983)

Toperoff, Sam. Sugar Ray Leonard and Other Noble Warriors (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987)

Torres, José. Fire & Fear: The Inside Story of Mike Tyson (New York: Popular Library, 1989)

-----. Sting like a Bee: The Muhammad Ali Story (New York: Curtis Books, 1971)

Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. History of Food, translated from the French by Anthea Bell (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1992)

Treadgold, Warren T. "Notes on the Numbers and Organization of the Ninth-Century Byzantine Army," Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 21:3, Autumn 1980

Trench, Charles Chenevix. A History of Marksmanship (Chicago: Follett Publishing, 1972)

Treviño, Rafael and Angus McBride. Rome’s Enemies 4: Spanish Armies (London: Osprey Publishing, 1986)

Trimingham, J. Spencer. The Influence of Islam upon Africa (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968)

Tringham, Gordon. "Professional Wrestling," Health & Strength, August 21, 1909 and September 4, 1909

Truzzi, Marcello. "China’s Psychic Savants," Omni, January 1985

T’sao Yung-ho. "Pepper Trade in East Asia," T’oung Pao, 58, 4-5 (1982)

Tuchman, Barbara W. The Guns of August (New York: Bantam Books, 1980)

Tuhy, John E. Sam Hill: The Prince of Castle Nowhere (Beaverton, OR: Timber Press, 1983)

Turnbull, Stephen. The Lone Samurai and the Martial Arts (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1990)

-----. Ninja: The True Story of Japan’s Secret Warrior Cult (Poole, Dorset, UK: Firebird Books, 1991)

-----. Samurai Warriors (London: Blandford Press, 1987)

----- and Richard Hook. Samurai Armies 1550-1615 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1979)

----- and Angus McBride. The Mongols (London: Osprey Publishing, 1980)

Turner, Alice K. The History of Hell (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1993)

Turner, Craig and Tony Soper. Methods and Practice of Elizabethan Swordplay (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990)

Turner, Edith with William Blodgett, Singleton Kahona, and Fideli Benwa. Experiencing Ritual: A New Interpretation of African Healing (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992)

Turner, Karyn with Mark Van Schuyver. Secrets of Championship Karate (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1991)

Twitchell, James B. Preposterous Violence: Fables of Aggression in Modern Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989)

Tyrey, Bradford J. and Marcus Brinkman. "The Luo-shu as Taiji Boxing’s Secret Inner-Sanctum Training Method," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 5:2, 1996

Ueshiba, Kisshomaru. The Spirit of Aikido (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1987); see also

Umminger, Walter. Supermen, Heroes and Gods: The Story of Sport through the Ages, translated and adapted from the German by James Clark (New York: McGraw Hill, 1963)

United Okinawan Association. Uchinanchu: A Pictorial Tribute to Okinawans in Hawaii (Honolulu: EastWest Magazine, 1990)

United States Air Force. "Stead Air Force Base Student Study Guide 140004-3 (Academic), Combative Measures Instructor Training (Judo), February 1963."

United States Army. Field Manual 3-9, Military Chemistry and Chemical Compounds, October 1975

-----. Field Manual 3-9, Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, December 1990

-----. Field Manual 3-25-150. Combatives, January 2002. Versions are online, but the URLs are not very stable. Therefore, you may need to access them via the Google caches.

-----. Field Manual 8-9, NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations, August 1973; the February 1996 edition is online at

-----. Field Manual 8-50, Prevention and Medical Management of Laser Injuries, August 1990

-----. Field Manual 21-150, Combatives, December 1992

-----. Field Manual 21-150, Unarmed Defense for the American Soldier, June 1942.

-----. Field Manual 55-15, Transportation Reference Data, June 1986

United States Marine Corps. Proposed Fleet Marine Force Manual 1-4, Hand-to-Hand Combat, November 1966

Unterharnscheidt, Friedrich. "About Boxing: Review of Historical and Medical Aspects," Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine, 28:4, Winter 1970

Urban, Peter. The Karate Dojo: Traditions and Tales of a Martial Art (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1967)

Urquhart, Blair, editor. Identifying Tartans: The New Compact Study Guide and Identifier (Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books, 1994)

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Velte, Herbert. "Jiu-Jitsu Celbrated on 60th Anniversary in Germany," Black Belt, June 1966

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Vennum, Thomas Jr. American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994); see also

Veyne, Paul, editor. A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium, translated from the French by Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987)

Vigil, James Diego. Barrio Gangs: Street Life and Identity in Southern California (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1988)

Villiers, John, editor. Francois Caron and Joost Schouten, A True Description of the Mighty Kingdoms of Japan and Siam, A Facsimile of the 1671 London edition in a contemporary translation from the Dutch by Roger Manley (Bangkok: The Siam Society, 1976)

Voll, John. "The Sudanese Mahdi: Frontier Fundamentalist," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10, 1979

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Wacquant, Loïc J.D. "The Pugilistic Point of View: How Boxers Feel about their Trade," November 1994 (was online; now a chapter in Robert Cantu, editor, Boxing and Medicine.)

-----. "The Whore, the Slave and the Stallion," Le Monde Diplomatique, June 2001

Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian (New York: Facts on File Publications, 1985)

Wakeman, Fred Jr. Policing Shanghai 1927-37 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995; first edition 1955)

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Walker, Barbara G. The Book of Sacred Stones (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1989)

-----. The Woman’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1983)

Walker, Donald. Defensive Exercises; comprising Wrestling, as in Cumberland, Westmoreland, Cornwall, and Devonshire; Boxing, Both in the Usual Mode and in a Simpler One; Defence against Brute Force, by Various Means; Fencing and Broad Sword, with Simpler Methods; The Gun, and Its Exercise; The Rifle, and Its Exercise; &c, &c, &c. (London: Thomas Hurst, 1840); extracts appear at

Walters, Derek. Chinese Astrology (London: Aquarian/Thorsons, 1992)

-----. Ming Shu: The Art and Practice of Chinese Astrology (New York: Fireside Books, 1987)

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Watson, Emmett. Digressions of a Native Son (Seattle, WA: Pacific Institute, 1982)

-----, edited by Fred Brack. My Life in Print (Seattle, WA: Lesser Seattle Publishing, 1993)

Watson, G. R. The Roman Soldier (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1969)

Watt, Richard M. Dare Call It Treason (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963)

Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962)

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Weil, Andrew and Winifred Rosen. From Chocolate to Morphine: Everything You Need to Know about Mind-Altering Drugs (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, revised edition, 1993)

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Weisberger, Bernard A. "Liberty and Disunion: Three Centuries of Divorce, American Style," American Heritage, October 1971

Weiss, Al and Tom Philbin. Clan of Death: Ninja (New York: Pocket Books, 1981)

Werner, E. T. C. Chinese Weapons (Los Angeles: Ohara Publications, 1972)

Westermeyer, Joseph. Poppies, Pipes, and People: Opium and Its Use in Laos (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982)

Wheeler, Tony and Joe Cummings. Burma: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1991); see also

----- and Richard Everist. Nepal: A Travel Survival Kit (Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1990); see also

White, Jerry A. "Commandant’s Note," Infantry, July-August 1993

White, Lynn Jr. Medieval Technology and Social Change (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962)

White, Thomas H. "The Battle of the Century -- the WJY Story,"

Whiting, Charles. Hero: The Life and Death of Audie Murphy (New York: Jove Books, 1991)

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Whyld, Ken. Chess: The Records (Enfield, Middlesex, UK: Guinness Superlatives, 1986)

Wicke, Charles R. Olmec: An Early Art Style of Precolumbian Mexico (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1971)

Wiggins, David K. "Peter Jackson and the Elusive Heavyweight Championship: A Black Athlete’s Struggle Against the Late Nineteenth Century Color-Line," Journal of Sport History, 12:2, Summer 1985,

Wilcken, Lois. The Drums of Vodou (Tempe, AZ: White Cliffs Media, 1992)

Wilcox, Peter and G. A. Embleton. Rome’s Enemies 1: Germanics and Dacians (London: Osprey Publishing, 1982)

----- and Angus McBride. Rome’s Enemies 2: Gallic and British Celts (London: Osprey Publishing, 1985)

----- and Angus McBride. Rome’s Enemies 3: Parthians and Sassanid Persians (London: Osprey Publishing, 1986)

Wiley, Bell Irvin. The Life of Johnny Reb (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1988)

Wiley, Mark V. "Classical Eskrima: The Evolution & Etymology of a Filipino Fencing Form," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3:2, 1994

Wiley, Peter Booth. Yankees in the Land of the Gods: Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan (New York: Viking Penguin, 1991)

Wiley, Ralph. Serenity: A Boxing Memoir (New York: Henry Holt, 1989)

Wilkinson-Latham, Robert and Angus McBride. North-West Frontier 1837-1947 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1977)

----- and Michael Roffe. The Sudan Campaigns 1881-1898 (London: Osprey Publishing, 1976)

Williams, F.D.G. SLAM: The Influence of S.L.A. Marshall on the United States Army, edited and introduced by Susan Canedy (Fort Monroe, VA: Office of the Command Historian, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1994)

Williams, J.E.D. From Sails to Satellites: The Origin and Development of Navigational Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992)

Williams, Peter and David Wallace. Unit 731: Japan’s Secret Biological Warfare in World War II (New York: The Free Press, 1989); see also

Willis, John Ralph. "Jihad Fi Sabil Allah -- Its Doctrinal Basis in Islam and Some Aspects of Its Evolution in Nineteenth-Century West Africa," Journal of African History, 8:3, 1967

Willoughby, David P. The Super Athletes: A Record of the Limits of Human Strength, Speed, and Stamina (South Brunswick and New York: A. S. Barnes, 1970)

Wilson, A. N., editor. The Norton Book of London (New York: W. W. Norton, 1995)

Wilson, James. "Chasing the Magic: Mysticism & Martial Arts on the Island of Java," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 2:2, 1993

Wilson, Sule Greg. The Drummer’s Path: Moving the Spirit with Ritual and Traditional Drumming (Rochester, VT: Destiny Books, 1992)

Wilson, William Scott. Ideals of the Samurai (Burbank, CA: Ohara, 1982)

Wing, R. L. The Tao of Power (New York: Dolphin, 1986)

Winter, Frank H. The First Golden Age of Rocketry (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990)

Wise, Terence and G. A. Embleton. Armies of the Crusades (London: Osprey Publishing, 1978)

----- and G. A. Embleton. Medieval European Armies (London: Osprey Publishing, 1975)

----- and G. A. Embleton. Saxon, Viking and Norman (London: Osprey Publishing, 1979)

----- and G. A. Embleton. The Wars of the Roses (London: Osprey Publishing, 1983)

----- and Richard Hook. Armies of the Carthaginian Wars 265-146 BC (London: Osprey Publishing, 1982)

----- and Angus McBride. Ancient Armies of the Middle East (London: Osprey Publishing, 1981)

----- and Angus McBride. The Conquistadores (London: Osprey Publishing, 1980)

----- and Richard Scollins. The Knights of Christ (London: Osprey Publishing, 1984)

Wister, Owen. The Virginian: A Horseman of the Plains (Clinton, MA: Colonial Press, 1964);

Wood, Charles T. The Age of Chivalry: Manners and Morals 1000-1450 (New York: Universe Books, 1970)

Woodcock, Thomas and John Martin Robinson. The Oxford Guide to Heraldry (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1988)

Woolley, G. C. "Malay Cannon," Journal Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society, 20, Part II, 1947

-----. "The Malay Kêris: its origin and development," Journal Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society, 20, Part II, 1947; see also

Woolman, David D. Rebels in the Rif (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1968); see also

Wong, Kiew Kit. Introduction to Shaolin Kung Fu (London: Paul H. Crompton, 1981)

World Almanac and Encyclopedia (New York: Press Publishing, 1899)

Worthington, Vivian. A History of Yoga (London: Arkana, 1989)

Wyatt, David K. Thailand: A Short History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984)

Wylde, Zachery. The English Master of Defence or The Gentleman’s al-a-mode of Accomplishment (London: John White, for the Author, 1711), British Library Shelfmark C45 B 2. Held with rare books in North Library. Cannot be photocopied. Transcript provided by Richard Bowen.

Wyrick, Waneen. Foil Fencing (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1971)

Xenophon. The Persian Expedition, translated from the Greek by Rex Warner (New York: Penguin Books, 1972);

Yagyu, Muneyori. The Sword and the Mind, translated from the Japanese by Hiroaki Sato (Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 1986). See also the translation by Thomas Cleary in Musashi’s The Book of Five Rings and Cleary’s analysis of the text in The Japanese Art of War, and the article at

Yamada, Shoji. "The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 28:1-2, 2001

Yamaguchi, Yoji. A Student’s Guide to Japanese American Genealogy (Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1996)

Yamamoto, Tsunetomo. Hagakure, translated from the Japanese by William Scott Wilson (New York: Avon Books, 1981)

Yang, Jwing-ming. Chinese Qigong Massage (Jamaica Plain, MA: Yang’s Martial Arts Association, 1992)

-----. Shaolin Chin Na: The Seizing Art of Kung Fu (Burbank, CA: Unique Publications, 1982)

----- and Jeffery A. Bolt. Northern Shaolin Sword (Jamaica Plain, MA: Yang’s Martial Arts Association, 1985)

Yates, Keith D. "How Tae Kwon Do Won the West," The Fighter International, October 1987

Yee, Paul. Saltwater City: An Illustrated History of the Chinese in Vancouver (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988)

Yessis, Michael with Richard Trubo. Secrets of Soviet Sports Fitness and Training (New York: Arbor House, 1987)

Yip, Chun with Danny Connor. Wing Chun Martial Arts: Principles & Techniques (York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, 1993)

Yoshida, Mitsuru. Requiem for Battleship Yamato, translated from the Japanese by Richard H. Minear (Seattle: University of Washington, 1985)

Yoshikawa, Eiji. The Musashi Saga, five volumes, translated from the Japanese by Charles S. Terry (New York: Pocket Books, 1989-1990)

Young, David C. The Olympic Myth of Greek Amateur Athletics (Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1984)

Young, Perry Deane. Lesbians and Gays and Sports (New York: Chelsea House, 1995)

Young, Richard and Judy Dockrey Young. Outlaw Tales: Legends, Myths, and Folklore from America’s Middle Border (Little Rock, AR: August House Publishers, 1992)

Young, Robert W. "The History & Development of Tae Kyon," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 2:2, 1993;; see also

Zaloga, Steven J. and Ron Volstad. Inside the Soviet Army Today (London: Osprey Publishing, 1987)

Zamoyski, Adam. The Polish Way (New York: Franklin Watts, 1988)

Zarina, Xenia. Classic Dances of the Orient (New York: Crown Publishers, 1967)

Zarrilli, Phillip B. "Actualizing Power(s) and Crafting a Self in Kalarippayattu -- A South Indian Martial Art and the Yoga and Ayurvedic Paradigms," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3:3, 1994

-----. "To Heal and/or To Harm: The Vital Spots in Two South Indian Martial Traditions," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 1:1, 1992, and 1:2, 1992

-----. "The Physical Shape and Experience of Culture," unpublished paper presented for the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Symposium No. 89, "Theater and Ritual," August 23 - September 1, 1982

-----. "Traditional Kerala Massage Therapies: The Kalarippayattu Martial Master as Healer," Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 4:1, 1995

-----. "The Transmission and Transformation of Performance Knowledge: Kalarippayatt," unpublished paper presented for the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research No. 89, "Theater and Ritual," August 23 - September 1, 1982

Zenkovsky, Serge A., editor and translator. Medieval Russia’s Epics, Chronicles, and Tales (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1963); see also

Ziadeh, Nicola A. Sanusiyah: A Study of a Revivalist Movement in Islam (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1958)

Zimmer, Carl. "After You, Eve," Natural History, 110:2, March 2001

Zinsser, Hans. Rats, Lice and History (New York: Bantam Books, 1960)

Zukav, Gary. The Dancing Wu Li Masters: An Overview of the New Physics (New York: Bantam Books, 1984)

Zürcher, E. "‘Prince Moonlight’: Messianism and Eschatology in Early Medieval Chinese Buddhism," T’oung Pao, 58, 1:3, 1982


Sodergren collection: A scrapbook on the Great Gama maintained by Ernest Sodergren, courtesy of Nadeem S. Haroon.

Kronos 2005