Transcribed from Japan Times and records found in Records Group 331, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland. Archival research by Jason Couch. Edited, organized, introduced, and transcribed by Joseph Svinth. Copyright © EJMAS 2002. All rights reserved.
Following the onset of the Pacific War in December 1941, the Japanese military decided that the physical education curriculum of the Japanese schools and universities required direct military applications. Therefore, in March 1942, Lieut. General Ryukichi Tanaka ordered the Dai Nippon Butokukai (Great Japan Martial Virtue Association, a martial art regulatory institution established in Kyoto in 1895) to make martial art instruction in Japan subordinate to the war effort. Opposition from traditionalists was quickly silenced, and by September 1942, even the Kodokan (the judo organization established by Jigoro Kano in 1882) had become directly subordinate to the newly militarized Butokukai. Along the way, tournament judo came to be described as a waste of time, kendo was derided as dancing with bamboo rods, and kyudo was ridiculed for being hopelessly out of date. Consequently, by 1945, martial arts ("budo") had come to mean training in hand-to-hand fighting rather than kendo, judo, and kyudo.
Gymnastics in Japan, ca. 1936. From Arthur Grix, Japans Sport in Bild und Wort (Berlin: Wilhelm Limpert Verlag, 1937).
With the end of the war in August 1945, the Ministry of Education regained control of Japan’s physical education curriculum, and this ended the bayonet and grenade throwing in the Japanese public schools. Simultaneously, judo, kendo, kyudo, and karate teachers began returning their instruction to prewar standards. Consequently, most martial art practitioners expected that it wouldn’t be long before tournaments and promotions resumed, similar to what they had been before the war.
Then, on October 22, 1945, the Supreme Commander Allied Powers (SCAP) notified the Ministry of Education that "dissemination of militaristic and ultranationalistic ideology will be prohibited and all military education and drill will be discontinued." Two months later, on January 4, 1946, SCAP issued Directive 550, which, with its companion Directive 548, required "the removal and exclusion from public life of militaristic and ultra nationalistic persons." One result of these orders was that the Ministry of Education eliminated martial arts from school curricula and another was that the Dai Nippon Butokukai was closed.
Although new federations quickly arose to take the place of the Butokukai, its closure still left Japan without a central regulatory authority for martial arts for the first time in decades. Meanwhile, from 1946 until 1948, SCAP actively persecuted ("purged") former fascists. Some of the latter were martial art enthusiasts. This added to the confusion about what was legal and what was not, and the result was confusion in Japanese martial art circles that did not begin working itself out until the late 1940s.
Because of this postwar confusion, there has since arisen the perception that SCAP imposed a Budo Ban on Japan. In reality, however, the "budo" banned was not traditional martial arts such as kendo and judo, but instead the products of state fascism that operated under the same name during the 1930s and 1940s.
Documentation to support the preceding summary appears below. The organization is essentially chronological. Editing has been minimal, and the most significant changes appear in subheadings, which were modified slightly so that they did a better job of separating material onscreen. Otherwise, titles of subheadings and dates are presented as in the original documents. Total length is about 16,000 words.
For further reading, see the SCAP and Ministry of Education records on microfilm and:
Hazard, Benjamin. (2002). "An Overview of Kendo 1945-2000." Unpublished manuscript.
Kaplan, David E. and Alec Dubro. (1986). Yakuza: The Explosive Account of Japan’s Criminal Underworld. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
McCarthy, P. (1999). Ancient Okinawan Martial Arts: Koryu Uchinadi. Rutland, Vermont and Tokyo: C. E. Tuttle.
Morris, Ivan I. (1960). Nationalism and the Right Wing in Japan: A Study of Post-War Trends. London: Oxford University Press.
Power, Guy H. (1998). "Budô in Japanese and U.S. Policies," Unpublished M.P.A. thesis, San Jose State University.
Power, Guy H. (1999). "The Pen and the Sword: The Budo Ban, Part II," Dragon Times, 14.
[Japan’s newly appointed Education Minister, Tamon
Maeda, said]: "Without waiting for possible interference from the
nations, Japan wishes to go ahead in shaping a new educational policy.
The safeguarding of Japan’s fundamental character and its contribution
to world peace as well as the construction of firm culture involving
promotion of physical development and study of natural science must be
the new guiding policies."
From Japan Times, August 27, 1945
[The Ministry of Education announced]: "Military education for students will also be discontinued and all regulations in connection with military education are to be abolished."
All warlike subjects as well as those which are not appropriate under the existing peace conditions will be eliminated from all the text books of primary, secondary and youths’ schools, according to a decision reached by the authorities of the Education Ministry. These subjects ill be eliminated either in whole or in part as the case may demand and teachers are ordered to exercise extreme caution in handling any subject which is considered unconducive to pacific thought. On September 20, the Vice-Minister of the Education Ministry issued orders to the governors of prefectures regarding this matter.Editor’s note: For a sample of the subsequent revised curriculum, see http://staff.gc.maricopa.edu/~ccohen/festschrift/jackandbetty.html.
Lovers of sport must greet with joy the recent announcement of plans to revive athletic activities. The all-out war effort that ended a short time ago had no room for sufficient recreation, and it appeared that, aside from certain exceptions, the world of sports had been completely forgotten.
Japan has its traditional and colorful "sumo", as well as swimming, hunting, judo, fencing, archery, horsemanship, and others. But it must be admitted in all frankness that the imported sports such as baseball, football, basketball, skating, hockey, tennis, golf, and a few others had completely "stolen the show" from the native field. These imported sports were rendered virtually impossible during the war by reason of the disapproval of the reactionary elements who frowned on all foreign influences, but even had it not been so, it would have been impossible to have continued them any way under the wartime conditions. In itself this fact indicates a sorry contrast with the United States where most sports were continued throughout the war.
There is something about sports that strikes a harmonious chord in
hearts of athletes everywhere. The spirit of fair play, of active and
competition, the full expression of the strong human body – these
to the young and vigorous people of all nations and races. In this
it is a strong welder of the amicable relations between nations, and it
is not at all strange that upon the cessation of hostilities we have
of plans for the holding of the next Olympic Games…
"Sports Revival Planned by Welfare Ministry," Japan Times, September 26, 1945
For the last eight years, the people suffered much not only materially, but physically and spiritually. Therefore, the revival of sports is urgent for the sake of the people. Physical education, however, must be conducted at the people’s initiative, with the Government in the position of giving encouragement and eliminating obstacles.
I hope that all sorts of sport groups which were abolished during the war will be revived, and resume activities. As sports are chosen in consideration of individual interests, circumstances and age, no regulations will be enforced in connection with the choice of sports. When the preservation of peace and order is assured, all kinds of athletic meets are to be revived, and I hope baseball matches, tennis tournaments, and Sumo (Japanese wrestling) will be conducted from this fall.
Editor’s note. According to Japan Times, during a meeting
of Japanese government officials and educators held in Tokyo on
29, 1945, it was decided that "all military exercises and training such
as shooting, bayonet practice will be prohibited." The Ministry of
issued its decision on October 9, 1945, and recipients included the
Athletic Association and the Dai Nippon Butokukai.
Administration of the Education System of Japan, Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, 22 October 1945
MEMORANDUM FOR: Imperial Japanese Government
THROUGH: Central Liaison Office, Tokyo
SUBJECT: Administration of the Education System of Japan
1. In order that the newly formed Cabinet of the Imperial Japanese Government shall be fully informed of the objectives and policies of the Occupation with regard to Education, it is hereby directed that:
Hatsu Tai (Notification) No. 80, Ministry of Education, 6 November 1945
From: Vice-Minister of Education
To: Prefectural Governors. Heads of Normal Schools
Subject: Re "Handling of Post-War Course in Physical Education"
"Kokumin Gakko" (Elementary level)
"Budo" (Kendo, Judo, and Naginata) courses to be abolished. These
to be allocated to general physical training…
"Chuto Gakko" (Secondary level)
"Budo" (Kendo, Judo, Naginata, and Kyudo) included in the curriculum
to be abolished. Furthermore, foregoing subjects are not to be include
(sic) in the students’ extracurricular activities…
Heads of Semmon Gakko and Koto Gakko (Higher Schools and Colleges)
"Budo" (Kendo, Judo, Naginata, Kyudo) included in the curriculum to
be abolished. Furthermore, the above subjects are not to be included in
the students’ extracurricular activities…
Presidents of Universities
It has been decided that Students’ Associations are not to organize
Budo Units (Kendo, Judo, Kyudo)…
Handling of Post-War Course in Physical Education (6 November 1945)
To the Heads of "Shihan Gakko" (Normal Schools), "Semmon Gakko" (College), and "Koto Gakko" (Higher Schools).
By the Vice-minister of Education
Subject: Re. "Handling of Post-War Course in Physical Education."
In accordance with the policy outlined in the several orders issued with the termination of the war, fundamental reforms were necessitated in the Physical Education Course in the "Shihan Gakko" (Normal School), and "Koto Gakko" (Higher Schools). The Ministry is now carefully scrutinizing the curriculum and the results will be announced shortly. For the time being, however, the conduction of the Course in Physical Education shall be based on the following policy.
Furthermore, with the abolishment of "Budo" from the course, special consideration should be given "Budo" instructors, such as to enable them to teach other subjects if they are found to have the necessary qualifications and aptitude. [EN1]
Note (in original)
Hatsu Tai (Notification) No. 100, Ministry of Education, December 26, 1945
A Report about the Thoroughness of the Disposal of Military Arms and Other Matters of School Physical Training Courses (From the reports by postscript about the above mentioned subject, we came to the following results.)
From Provincial Governments
Received reports from three metropolitan and twenty-five prefectures.
A. The following list shows those which were warned about the disposal of arms used for military drill.
3 cases in Aomori
2 cases in Miyagi
2 cases in Iwate
1 case in Fukushima
2 cases in Ishikawa
1 case in Ehime
1 case in Kochi
Total -- 22 cases
From Universities and Colleges
A. Total reports 144.
% of Answers Received
B. Main Problems Persisting
The number of problems in high schools and colleges is comparatively small. We received reports from Tokyo Industrial University, Niihama Industrial College and Wakayama Industrial College.
The above mentioned three schools were all under suspicion of hiding arms, but these situation seem to have been brought to an amicable settlement
Excerpts of Report from the 9th Session of the Committee on Petitions held on 30 August 1946 during the 90th Session of the House of Representatives
Mr. Bando, member of the Diet-- "Judo is banned, but there are various jujitsu, similar to judo, such as the Azuma school, or Shibukawa school. Also there is karate. Do you mean all these, as well as judo, are banned?"
Mr. Hidaka, government representative--"Yes, it is so. Judo, karate,
kyudo, everything that is called by the name of budo is not supposed to
be used [in the schools]. That is the understanding we have agreed
Reports on Studies, Demonstrations, and Surveys Made in the Interest of Evaluating the Changes and Present Status of Judo and Other Sports Concerned
5 December 1946
Reports on Judo, Kendo, and Kyudo prepared by the Japanese groups concerned in connection with the demonstration program of these three sports were submitted and forwarded to Chief of Education Division. The Judo report reads as follows:
"The New Judo will be directed along democratic lines by removing
old mystic, formal, and feudalistic phases, especially its militaristic
and ultra-nationalistic aspects, such as the military art useful for
fighting and actions like hand-to-hand fighting which are (sic)
emphasized during the War.
With the permission of the Education Division, a demonstration of these sports showing the pre-war, war-time, and post-war forms was conducted, inviting members of the Education Division.
Comments of those members who have seen the demonstration can be summarized:
Education Ministry Confidential Document No. 805, 20 February 1947
With the termination of the war, the Ministry of Education considered their [Budo arts] continuation open to question and took the temporary expedient of eliminating them from school education as falling under "e" (prohibited in both school hours and as extra-curricular activities).
These sports have been widely popular among all classes of people and have a merit of their own as sports suitable for cultivation of virtues and character.
Since the termination of the war, lovers of Judo, Kendo and Kyudo
voluntarily eliminated militaristic colors and built them up as new
Survey conducted in regard to students’ preference of sports at
levels of the school system:
|University group||9th||19th (sic)|
Outline of the Butokukai (Martial Virtues Society) and its Relation to the Purge (Submitted by Kurimoto, 21 Feb 47)
Aims of the Butokukai
The Butokukai was formed by followers of the ancient Japanese art of fencing, judo (jujitsu) and archery and aimed, through improvement in training and technical skill, at fostering a deportment of frugality, chivalry and pride and at elevating character and training of physique. Thus it is neither a political, ideological body nor a militaristic body. Neither did it take part in and (sic) or quasi-militaristic training. The following attempts to demonstrate this point through a historical survey and through their real activities
History of the Butokukai and Outline of the Activities Thereof
The Old Butokukai
The Butokukai was established at Kyoto in April 1895 by civilian enthusiasts with the object of building up the physique and mind and the inculcation of curtesy (sic) through training in the ancient Japanese Art of fencing, judo (jujitsu) and archery. At that time the Governor of Kyoto Prefecture, Mr. Chiaki Watanabe was made Chairman and leading members were appointed from among the respective spheres and have been instrumental in the advancement and dissemination of these arts. Subsequently, members of the society increased in many localities and the members in the various prefectures formed themselves into branches of the society and thus commenced activities by contributions from members and enthusiasts.
In the prefectures it became customary as in the case of Kyoto, to delegate the head post of the branch to the prefectural governor. With the establishment of the local branches it no longer became appropriate at Kyoto to have its governor as the chairman, and it was decided to ask a senior person to assume it. Accordingly, Mr. Shuzo Aoki, the then Foreign Minister and others were appointed in the beginning. For reasons given later on, retired soldiers were subsequently made chairmen. Their activities however never at any time exceeded the aims given before and no political or ideological activities were carried out up to and subsequent to the reform of 1942.
After the commencement of the Pacific War, on the demand of the
(person responsible at that time was former Lieut. General Ryukichi
Chief of Military Affairs Bureau) and with the object of co-ordinating
military arts and the advancement of bayonet
drill and shooting, the Ministry of Welfare (the then Minister of
former Surgeon Lieut. General [Chikahiko] Koizumi
) planned to establish a new Martial Arts Organization. Despite strong
opposition from the Butokukai which took its stand from its tradition
original mission, it was arbitrarily taken over and the old name of
was continued, while in addition to fencing, judo and archery
the arts of scythe, staff and stick wielding) the two arts of bayonet
and shooting were added, thus culminating in March 1942 in the
of a new organization as an outer organization of the government. The
Minister [Hideki Tojo] was appointed Chairman, while the five Ministers
of Welfare, Education, War, Navy, and Home Affairs, together with one
from academic circles were made Vice-Chairman [sic]. Although
competent minister was the Minister of Welfare [e.g., Koizumi, who was
interested in improving the physical fitness of military-age youth],
reasons for the appointment of the five ministers as vice-chairmen are
due to the relation to these arts of students, soldiers and police
and the respective ministers concerned were thus made vice-chairmen.
this reform the military attempted arbitrarily to disseminate
and shooting to the youthful group, but the leading members of the old
Butokukai who had adhered to fencing, judo and archery of their own
choice, maintained their ground on these old arts and internal harmony
could not have been said to have been attained. Thus the military were
unsuccessful in their attempt to exercise control over them, with the
that the pivot of Butokukai rested as before on the arts of fencing,
and archery and training in bayonetting and shooting were given by War
Veteran’s Association and the Dainippon Shooting Association. As far as
the Butokukai was concerned, it merely planned dissemination to the
public, while as far as supervision and giving training were concerned,
it took no part whatsoever but merely confined itself in the case of
to affording tests to those who asked for them.
Reform after the Surrender
With the surrender, the Butokukai immediately embarked upon
reform in order to efface its abnormal wartime character. Thus it
bayonetting and shooting and having reverted to a purely civilian body,
it was democratically organized to contribute to the advancement of
fencing and archery as a healthy sport. Subsequently stern attention
drawn by the General Headquarters to the existence of certain
persons among the members of the Butokukai. Since however, by the
of this organization it was unable to assume responsibility in the
of individual activities of such persons, it took its inevitable step
a voluntary dissolution.
As stated before, owing to the gradual increase in the members since
the establishment of the Butokukai in 1895, the branches were operated
by the members by prefectures through contributions of members and
In the local districts the martial arts were cultivated and maintained,
apart from a few enthusiasts, by police officers from the nature of
duties and the Butokukai was operated with the police officers as the
figures. Its enterprise consisted in the erection of a Butoku Hall and
in perfecting the martial arts and confined itself to holding
once or twice a year for the training of the body and the mind. The
were independent financially of the central headquarters and possessed
independent capital and the leading members thereof were appointed by
branch chiefs. Thus apart from the granting of high gradings which was
controlled by the central headquarters, the activities of the branches
were not bound in anyway by headquarters, and they were operated on a
basis. Furthermore, the formations of branches were not confined to
country alone, but branches were established overseas, for example not
only in Shanghai and Hankow but also in Southern California and in
Circumstances concerning the Appointment of the Chairmen of the Organization and the Branch Chiefs
The Chairmanship of the Butokukai had been occupied since 1916 by retired military persons. This was due to the following. As stated previously, in the early days the former Foreign Minister, Mr. Shuzo Aoki and later to the former Minister of Communications Viscount Kanetake Oura were made charmen (sic). In 1915, the then chairman Viscount Ka (sic) Kanetake Oura retired from politics under a cloud of suspected corruption and with his consequent resignation a policy was taken to avoid selecting the chairman from among politicians as it was seen that political contraversy (sic) was becoming predominant and the desirability of creating the Society into a sports organ of true lovers of the arts, free from political and ideological influences. Thus it was considered appropriate that a retired soldier whose non-participation in politics is a prerequisite, of high character and uprighteousness (sic) should be given the post and in 1916 Lieut. General Nariyuki Miyoshi was made Chairman and thus this procedure became customary subsequently, for non political retired soldiers with high moral integrity to be appointed in turn, Fusataro Hongo, Soroku Suzuki, Taketsugy (sic) Nara being these. The Vice-Chairman was chosen from among suitable civilian circles. The first Chairman with a Prime Minister’s record was General Senjuro Hayashi [February 2, 1937-June 2, 1937]. He was responsible for the sudden dissolution of the Diet in the spring of 1938 and retired from the scene having demonstrated his arbitrary and overweening political ability. His subsequent appointment to the Chairmanship is entirely due to his personal character and has no bearing upon his political record which must be considered a failure. Thus no changes were made in the activities of the Butokukai, following his appointment and not the least signs of either political or ideological activities were to be seen.
It was customary to appoint the prefectural governors as the heads
Whether or Not the Butokukai Should Be Considered as Falling under Paragraph "C" of the Purge Directive
Whether or Not to Consider the Butokukai as a Militaristic or Ultra Nationalistic Body
No qualification is required in that the object of the Purge is in the removal and exclusion from public office of militaristic and ultranationalistic persons. The organizations under Paragraph "C" must be such that their aims or the results of their activities fall under any one of the items under paragraph 1 of the SCAP Memorandum of January 4, 1946.
The organizations thus far designated as paragraph "C" cases have
possessed aims or activities which fall under the above disqualifying
It is a fact however that the Butokukai for circumstances stated before
were formed by enthisiasts (sic) of the ancient Japanese Art of
judo, fencing and archery for the purpose of training character in the
virtues of curtesy (sic), pride and courage and in the building
of moral intergrity (sic) and physical fitness. Never at any
did the activities of this society exceed the limits of these aims. By
the organization reform of 1942 its organizational formation and
were seen temporarily to have distorted the original mission and
but the circumstances leading up to it together with the actual facts
the case were as has been stated before an emanation of wartime
and not the real outcome of the intentions of the Butokukai. Nor were
activities in any close proximity to the pretensions of the military
politico-ideological activities within such interpretation were
inconceivable. It is possible that there were persons amongst those who
were strong at fencing and judo and who received grades from the
who possessed militaristic or agressive (sic) thoughts and who
responsible for such activities and it is moreover a fact that persons
concerned in the martial arts have been actually warned by the General
Headquarters for having exchanged correspondence of suspected such
since the surrender. It is considered however that such cases have been
the results in many cases of discontent through the loss of livelihood
on the part of instructors following on the abolition of the martial
from school curricula and that a minority of these discontend (sic)
groups became recklessly disconsolate. These discontended (sic)
groups are not necessarily directly related to the Butokukai and even
they are members thereof, their unruly words and behaviour were
personal of which the Butokukai were wholly ignorant. It is not for the
Butokukai to assume responsibility for the behaviour and actions of
individuals. Thus it was that the Butokukai aimed solely at training in
the martial arts for the advancement of the moral character of the
and in the shaping of the mind and physique. Never did it lend itself
the assertion of aggression or militarism or to acts of violence and
it cannot be regarded as a militaristic or ultra nationalistic body.
Did the Butokukai Carry Out Militaristic or Quasi-militaristic Training or Commit Acts with the Object of Perpetuating a Bellicose Spirit
On the occasion of the reform of 1942, as a result of strong pressure from the military, the Butokukai came to handle nominally bayonetting and shooting in addition to judo, fencing and archery. As stated before, however, the enthusiasts who adhered to the tradition of the old Butokukai never agreed with the military and in actual fact diverged considerably from the initial intentions of the military. In other words neither bayonetting drill, nor shooting were carried out by the Butokukai but courses were given in these by the Japan War Veteran’s Association and the Japan Shooting Association and in the schools. The Butokukai carried out tests in regard to those who desired them in bayonetting drills. Especially in regard to shooting, the Butokukai possessed not a single rifle-range and training as well as tests were given by the Japan Shooting Association (A member organization of the World Olympic Federation). The Butokukai thus disseminated bayonetting art and shooting to the general public. Never did it take part in the direction or training thereof, nor were there any relation between the Butokukai and the schools or War Veteran’s Association which gave such training.
Thus even assuming bayonet exercise and shooting to be militaristic or quasi-militaristic, it would be wrong to assume that the Butokukai engaged in organized and co-ordinated training thereof. It is clearly stretching the point too far to consider shooting as militaristic or quasi-militaristic just as shooting for game-shooting is considered a pleasant sport and is widely acclaimed by peace-loving persons and just as the Japan Shooting Association a member organization of the Olympic Federation can hardly be considered a paragraph "C" case.
Ever since its foundation, the Butokukai has it is true been engaged in the advancement of the technique in the ancient Japanese arts of judo, fencing and archery but through the attainment of this technical skill it has never given militaristic or quasi-militaristic training or diffused a bellicose spirit or to have had such aims. As far as the Butokukai was concerned it was essentially a sports organization formed by persons of common leanings resulting in the erection of training halls in the respective branches, where such persons got together for the improvement in technical skill. It was fundamentally a voluntary organization of enthusiasts with the specivic (sic) aim of perfection of technique and personal polishing-up. Never did it carry out any generally organized directed training, let alone resort to propaganda or technique or training with militaristic motives. Where organized training in judo or fencing was given most were perhaps in the armed forces, schools and police. The education in the armed forces and in the schools bear no relation to the Butokukai. Among instructors in schools there are some graduates of martial arts Technical Schools operated by the Butokukai; but on the 5000 martial arts instructors at the time of the abolition of martial arts education they only numbered 800. The relations of these persons to the Butokukai moreover were personal and there is no relation whatsoever between the education given in the martial arts in the schools and the Butokukai.
The training given in judo and fencing in the police forces were executed in consideration of the nature of their duties and the fact that this constituted the chief work in the branches are as stated previously. To regard judo or fencing themselves as something militaristic or quasi-militaristic or agressive (sic) is clearly mistaken just as in the case of shooting. Judo or fencing are no different from boxing or wrestling.
For these reasons even after the organizational reform of 1942, to
the Butokukai as having carried out militaristic or quasi-militaristic
training or aimed at the perpetuation of an agressive (sic)
or committed such acts, is a conclusion which cannot be said to be
on accurate facts.
Directive, Serial No. 74, Prepared by the U.S. Department of State to Implement the Policy Adopted by the Far Eastern Commission, 27 March 1947, for Guidance of SCAP
Teaching of military subjects should be totally forbidden in all education institutions. The wearing by students of military-style uniforms should be forbidden. Classical sports, such as Kendo, which encourage the martial spirit, should be totally abandoned. Physical training should no longer be associated with the Seishin Kyoiku ["spiritual education"]. Greater emphasis should be placed on games and other recreational activities than on pure calisthenics and drill. If former servicemen are employed as drill instructors, or in connection with physical training or sports, they should be carefully screened.
NOTE: Although Karate was never forbidden as part of the school and
university physical education and sports program in the Notification,
has since been interpreted by M/E as coming under Hatsu Tai No. 80. (In
Invitation to the Acting Meeting of the Ancient Japanese Knight Arts, 28 May 1948
To: Director of physical section, educational department G.H.Q.
1. We take the liverty (sic) of inviting you to the acting meeting of the ancient Japanese knight arts which will be held to display the late instructor’s excellent arts as follows:
b) Hobaku-Jutsu (Art of arrest)
c) Shiriken-Jutsu (Art of handy sword)
d) Joh-Jutsu (Art of stick)
e) Kusarigama-Jutsu (Art of chain-sickle)
f) Jingai-Jutsu (Art of shell used in camp)
g) Naginata-Jutsu (Art of long handled sword)
h) Jitte-Jutsu (Art of metal truncheon)
i) Kodachi-Jutsu (Art of short sword)
j) Sou-Jutsu (Art of spear)
k) Ju-Jutsu (Art of self-defence)
l) Kenjutsu (Art of Japanese fencing)
m) Bou-Joutsu (Art of long stick)
The ancient Japanese knight arts are quite different from these at present. Because these arts were always performed for them in order to cultivate their merits of coutesy (sic), modesty, morality and affection. Through these arts they loved peace as their Japanese letters are showing their meaning "stop war".
The ancient Japanese knight pursuits the gentlemanship. They are strickly (sic) prohibited from use their sowrds (sic) and spears at rnadom (sic). Cosequently (sic) it is evident that these instructors were gentlemen and always looked up to by people then contributed to that times.
Now, we, niheritors (sic), will get together and hold this meeting for the purpose of thinking of past.
We shall be much pleased if you will kindly come to this meeting with your family, many officers, enlisted men and civilians.
/s/ Tetsusaburo Kawauchi, Member of the inheritor’s gathering of the
ancient Japanese knight arts
Revival of Kendo by Police, 26 June 1948
From: Police Branch, Public Safety Division
During investigation inspection of Yamaguchi Prefecture, NRP [National Rural Police] Troop Commander invited us to a tournament of Kendo and Judo. This tournament was an all police affair, both NRP and MP [Military Police] from Yamaguchi Prefecture taking part, under the auspices of the NRP…
Judo has been approved for the police by PSD [Public Safety Division] to fit in with modern police training methods with the understanding that Kendo will not be practiced, as it has no place in police training…
To date, no school in Japan may teach or practice Judo, although it
may be taught by a private institution not permanently supported by the
government. NRP is violating existing directives in sponsoring the
of Kendo, which to the Japanese means the cult of the sword and all
that denotes… [EN2]
Memo to Mr. M. T. Orr, Chief, Education Division, 18 August 1948
From: Mr. Wm. Neufeld, Physical Education Consultant
Subject: Possibilities of Modification of Order #80, Bureau of Physical Education, drafted November 6, 1945
1. Attached hereto is memorandum to SCAP drafted by Mr. MacEvoy, editor of Reader’s Digest in Japan.
2. During the past few months the Physical Education Bureau and the Physical Education Consultant have received repeated requests for modification in Order No. 80 in order to permit the instruction and competition in the sports of Judo, Kendo, and Kyudo. The attached memorandum to SCAP is one of several such requests. Other requests have come from individual student groups and private sports organizations. The consultants in Health and Physical Education feel that rather than consider Judo only in this modification, a general re-evaluation of Order No. 80 in the light of the following three objectives should be considered before any modification be made; that is:
3. If these sports are to be included in the curriculum at what level should each be introduced?
4. Since the major reason given for discontinuance of Budo sports in schools and universities was because of the close relationship of these sports with the military arts, it is felt that a reevaluation should be made in regard to what progress has been made in eliminating these militaristic tendencies in the sports. It is hoped that some such measure of progress in this direction may be made at the time of the national meet at Fukuoka the latter part of October. Judo competition for policemen, on a national scale, will be conducted as one of the many sports at that time. The consultant understands that the word "Budo" which includes the sports of Kendo, Judo, Naginata, and Kyudo means "warrior’s ways" which seems to be the major stigma attached to these sports. There is no further reference to these sports in Order No. 80 as being the martial arts. Order No. 80 (c) states the following: "‘Budo’ (Kendo, Judo, Nagianta [sic], Kyudo) included in the curriculum to be abolished. Furthermore, foregoing subjects are not to be included in the students’ extra curriculum activities."
5. It is impossible for the Physical Education Consultants, with their limited experience in Japan, to determine to what extent these sports are related to their military arts in the minds of the Japanese people.
6. The part which these sports can play in the school physical education program varies somewhat with each sport:
2. Kyudo -- A semi-active sport, particularly good for girls and rehabilitation programs at junior high school level and above.
3. Kendo -- A questionable activity due to the opportunity for injuries. If war cries are eliminated, it would possibly be on the same level with our foils, sabre, and epee. This sport might possibly be suitable for men at the university and college level.
Concerning Zen Nippon Judo Remmei Setsuritsu Jumbi Iin Kai (Preliminary Committee for the Establishment of All-Japan Judo League), October 25, 1948
FOR: Major Jack P. Napier, Government Section, G.H.Q.
With reference to the result of the examination we have made by your recent inquiry concerning the Zen Nippon Judo Remmei, we have hereby the pleasure of submitting to you the following report.
|NAME||GRADE||PRESENT OCCUPATION||CONNECTION WITH THE BUTOKU KAI|
|*||Shimon ADACHI||7||Director of Kinki Judo Association||Chief Manager of Judo Department, Head Office.|
|Chikara EBASHI||7||President of minami (sic) Judo Kai, Fukushima Prefecture||None|
|Sadao HISANAGA||7||Director of Judo Kai, Fukuoka||None|
|Risei KANO||President of Kodokan||None|
|Manjiro MATSUOKA||7||President of Osaka Judo grade holder’s association||None|
|Kyoichi MIYATAKE||7||President of Kagawa Prefectural Judo Association||None|
|*||Isao NAGAHATA||8||Chief of Miscalleneous (sic) Section of Kodo Kan||(Manager.) Business of Tokyo Metropolis Branch.|
|Hideichi NAGATA||10.||Teacher of Metropolis Police Board.||(Adviser.) Honorary post.|
|Hisando OGATA||7||President of Kure Judo grade holders Association||None|
|Taiji OSHIMA||7||Nagoya Judo Association||None|
|Ikko SAWA||7||Director of General Affairs Division of Kodo Kan||None|
|Shotaro TABATA||10||Chief Director of Nippon Judo Shigi Kai Director of Kinki Judo Association||None|
|Kisaburo TAKAHASHI||7||President of Miyagi Prefectural Judo grade Holder’s Association||None|
|X||Masaji TAKAYAKI||7||Director of Nikko Company, Ltd.||None|
|X||Shigetaka TAKEMURA||7||President of Kyushu Judo Association.||None|
|X||Hidetoshi TOMABECHI||6||Member of the House of Councillors. President of Otaru Judo Grade Holders Association||None|
The names of the Representatives have been arranged by alphabetical order.
The sign "*" indicates the Drafting Committeeman of the Regulations.
The sign "X" indicates the person in charge of liaison of the Preliminary Committee.
Regarding those concerned with the Butoku Kai their relations with it have been given, but none of them has not been involved in the scope of the purge (sic). However, shimon (sic) ADACHI is said to have remarked, "If any trouble is given to the League because of the personal question I will resign my office of the Preliminary Committeeman." Further, no one connected with any dissolved organization can be recognized.
Note (in original)
Kodo Kan (which was established in 1882) was ordered in September, 1942, by the Tojo Cabinet to be involved in Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. Opposing to the involution and on the promised condition that it would take its original position, (that is, a pure sport organization), Kodo Kan was taken into part of the Judo Department of the new Butoku Kai.
Investigators in Charge: Secretary Higuchi, Secretary Kuratani.
Concerning the League of Archery of All Japan (Zen Nippon Kyudo Remmei), February 16, 1949
FOR: Major Jack P. Napier, Government Section, G.H.Q.
FROM: Director Mitsusada Yoshikawa of Special Examining Bureau, Attorney-General’s Office.
With reference to the subject we have made investigations at your recent request. We have hereby the honour of submitting to you the following report.
We aim to contribute to the improvement of the people’s physique and the cultivation of their personality and virtue by the spread and promotion of Archery and at the same time to contribute to the mutual friendship of the members and to the dvelopement (sic) of international friendship and social culture of our own free will…
|Official Title||Name||Career||Relations with Butoku Kai||Principle duties|
|President||Minoru HIGUCHI||President of Mitsubishi Real Estate Company, Ltd.|
|Standing Director||Goro MURAI||President of League of Archery of Kanagawa Prefecture.||Taking charge of the works|
|"||Kunisaku SHIMURA||Hospital Director. President of League of Archery of Ibaragi Prefecture.|
|"||Raku TAKAGI||Hospital Director. President of League of Archery of Saitama Prefecture.||Director of Archery department of Saitama Branch.|
|"||Ryohei SEKIGUCHI||Dentist.||Taking Charge of Accounting business.|
|"||Zenji OHIRA||President of Okura Fire-arms Company, Ltd. Director of Japan Archery Association.||Taking Charge of the Report.|
|"||Sadao MAEDA||Former Director of Commercial firm.||Manager of meeting Orchery (sic) Department.|
|"||Toshio WATANABE||Dentist. Member of Shimizu Municipal Assembly.||Taking Charge of inspecting business.|
|"||Kichitaro TSUCHIYA||Clerk of a commercial firm.||Manager of meeting of Archery Department.|
|"||Takeo KAJITANI||Lawyer||Taking Charger (sic) of mescelleneous (sic) business.|
|"||Takashi MORI||Hospital Director. President of League of Archery of All Hokkaido.|
|"||Masao TSUNODA||Brewer. President of League of Archery of Miyagi Prefecture.|
|"||Heijiro YASUZAWA||Director of Commercial firm. President of League of Archery of Yamagata Prefecture.||Director of Archery department of Yamagata Prefecture.|
|"||Tatsunosuke KAWAGUCHI||President of Union of Glaziers||Manager of meeting of Archery Department.|
|"||Chuzo ANDO||Director of a commercial firm.|
|"||Yoshio HAMADA||Teacher of Police Bureau of Imperial Household.||Manager of meeting of Archery Department.|
|"||Katsumi OKAMOTO||Director of a commercial firm. President of League of Archery of Hiroshima Prefecture.|
|"||Tetsusuke ISSHISAI||Hospital Director. President of League of archery of Ehime Prefecture.|
|"||Senzo URATA||Lawyer||Manager of meeting of Archery Department.|
|"||Iwao IWANAGA||Director of a commercial firm.|
This League is the Combined body formed by the local Leagues of Archery gathered together with the Metropolis, the District, the Urban or Rural Prefecture as its unit.
The number of the Leagues of Archery of the Metropolis, the District and the Urban and Rural Prefectures which are taking part in this League is thirty-seven organizations. The number of members is approximately 4.372 who are the members of the foregoing participated local Leagues.
The Motto of this League shall be "Sport Archery". "In the archery performed in modern age fair and broad-minded spirit with the lively health should be cherished by confirming to the independent character of peusonality (sic) in archery and standing on the courtesy and faith". From that view-point, this League has been formed by the local Leagues of archery have gathered together under the proposal of the League of Archeay (sic) of Tokyo Metoropolis (sic) in response to the desire of the archery lovers throught (sic) the country. The purpose of this League shall chiefly be the organ of liaison and friendship, and also to use its good offices for the auspices of the arching competitions, both all Japanese and the international as well as those mutually held in the district Leagues and in farticular (sic) areas.
At the time of the first great meeting of all Japan held at Kashiwabara Archery Department is (sic) May 1947, we had the congraturatory (sic) words from the Phyisical (sic) Culture Official Mr. Graham. In the Second Great meeting of Japan Physical culture is desired. Accordingly, obtaining the approval of Japan Physical culture (sic) Association (Nippon Taiiku Kokai), this League participated in the archery competition as the special member of the program in the Great meeting of the Third National Physical Culture.
Then, in order to take part formally in the Fourth Great meeting of the National Physical Culture for this year, the Councillors’ meeting was held on December 19th last year and decided to take the step of entering Japan Physical Culture Association. Further, the system of the examination in technique of archery was established, and the Classifications and titles through the examinations was authorized.
For the report of League affairs and the mutual liaison of members "the Kyuren Kaiho" was first published in October 1947, and number eight of it has been issued until now.. (sic) For two years after its formation Yozaburo UNO had undertaken the responsibility of President. He is an amateur archer who has the career of former Chief Judge of the supreme Court. On December 19th when the policy for the participation in Japan Physical Culture Association was decided, he voluntarily resigned in Comideration (sic) of his relations with Dai Nippon Butoku Kai, in which he had taken up the positions of Director and Director of Archery Department...
As a result we have been able to discover, as stated above, some linking in respect to the personnel relations. In the glorious days of Dai Nippon Butoku Kai every lover of archery was peaced (sic) under the circumstances of beeing (sic) swallowed up into Butoku Kai in some form or other. Therefor (sic) all the lovers of archery in the former days were given the names of the officers and duties on the technical side only.
They are all considered to have nothing to do with the side of Butoku Kai in political relations. And regarding to the property and ideology of this League, it did not succeed any of them from Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. That was brought to light by the investigations of the Account-Book, the Regulations and the Article of Association. (The awarding of titles is one of the customs which have been performed by this sort of sport organizations and taste or amusement organizations from old days, and it is not particularly performed by Butoku Kai only).
Yet, in the present phase, amont (sic) the principal officers of this League there are involved many who have been the principal officers of the organizations dissolved in accordance with the Ministry Ordinance. In this respect, it is needless to say that it is necessary for them to exercise self-discipline in the light of the Memorandum dated January 4th 1946 even if it does not become the direct object of Article 4 of the Imperial Ordinance No. 101. But, according to the advice of this Bureau, this League is going newly starting as an organization carrying through the spirit of democratic pure sport by solving its niternal (sic) questions with its own hands, for example, in the new organization such persons concerned with former Butoku Kai should be rejected from the principal officers.
As this Bureau, by linking with Physical Culture Promotion Section of Educational Ministry, attention shall be paid to it by guiding and advising it continually relating to the system and officers of it as a healthy and bright organization so as not to be regarded as an organization succeeding to Dai Nippon Butoku Kai in its form and action.
/S/ M. Yoshikawa
Investigator: Secretary; HIGUCHI
(Editor’s note: In the margin, there is a pencil note: "recommend
(Drafted) Regulation of All-Japan Judo Union (no date, but pencil note reading, "Not approved -- no objection 5 March 1949")
CHAPTER I. DENOMINATION, AND LOCALITY OF THE HEAD OFFICE
Article 1. The Union is called All-Japan Judo Union.
Article 2. The Head Office of the Union is located in the Tokyo
CHAPTER II. OBJECT & WORKS
Article 3. The object of the Union is the propagation and development of Judo and the intimacy and rapprochement of the members of the Judo circle.
Article 4. For the realization of the above-mentioned object, the Union shall be occupied with the following works:
CHAPTER III. ORGANIZATION
Article 5. The Union is composed of the democratic Judo Groups autonominally participated by the members of all localities, occupations and posts of all over Japan.
Article 6. The Judo Groups above-mentioned should participate in the Prefectural Union with the members of the locality and the Prefectural Unions should compose the local Unions by the division of geographical areas. The Local Unions are to be divided geographically in 10: Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto, Tokyo, Shin-etsu, Tokai, Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu.
Article 7. To join or leave the Union, the approbation of the Board of Directors is needed.
Article 8. Groups and Unions mentioned in Articles 5 and 6 should present to the Directors’ Meeting the detail of the organization and the names of members, and get the approbation of the President after the deliberation of the Meeting.
(Editor’s note: Ten additional articles omitted.)
Report of the Study Made by Judo Organizations and Edited by Education Ministry was Submitted and Forwarded to Chief of Education Division, 23 April 1949
Dates and Petitions
Reasons given for restoration of Budo Sports in letters and petitions, asking for their revival in schools and universities.
Letter from the All-Japan Judo Union to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, June 8, 1949
The All-Japan Judo Union was established on May 6 democratically by the will of all Judomen in Japan. We members of the Union do our best at present for the healthy development of our peaceful Sport Judo.
We heard these days of the fact that our Minister of Education presented to you a document requesting your approval about the School Judo. We wait so eagerly your approval of the restoration in our schools.
Here we present our solicitation with the eagerness of all members of the Union.
Hoping you should help us by your prompt approval about this matter,
I remain, Yours very faithfully,
/S/ Risei KANO. President of the All-Japan Judo Union.
Translation of Article that Appeared in the Newspaper, Asahi-Shimbun, on Thursday, June 9, 1949
Mr. Ogiri Yoshiye, 24 years old, a second year student of the Nippon University Law Department brought legal action to the Kenda Police station against Iwasa Junichi and Tsuchiya Yosiyuki, both second year students of the Law Department (Nippon University) on the 7th instant for injuries sustained. The Police Station started an investigation by summoning the persons involved.
According to the investigation conducted by the Police Station, Mr. Ogiri was asked, "Are you a member of the Karate Department?" by the two members of the Department who discovered that he wore a Karate member’s buckle.
Ogiri answered, "I have been a member of the Karate Department since my Preparatory Course days, but I have not practiced it lately." Thereupon, he was taken to the Karate Practice Room, where he was surrounded by umpteen members of the Karate Department all clad in the Karate garment.
Quizzed, "How can a non-member of the Karate Department wear a buckle?", he was scolded, struck and kicked for about half an hour, receiving an injury recovery from which would take a couple of weeks.
Mr. Takanoshi, Chief of the Students’ Section of Nippon University
"Judging from the atmosphere prevailing at a conference held on the day
of this unfortunate occurrence, it seemed as if it would be settled as
a family affair. Since a legal action, however, was taken, it must be
to the teachers, who will dispose of the case as their intelligence and
good sense dictate them. The Karate Department is an association of
fans, not officially recognized by the school.
Memorandum for Physical Education Consultant, 10 June 1949
FROM: Liaison & Investigation Branch
SUBJECT: Report of Brawl at Nippon University
1. At request of Physical Education Consultant, investigation of reported brawl at Nippon University was made. Brawl involved students of the Karate Club. Three universities were visited in course of investigation in order to ascertain also whether Karate clubs existed in schools other than the one in question. Karate is banned as a military art.
2. Physical Education Consultant was in error in believing brawl to have been at Chuo University. There is a Karate club there, however. It has no faculty sponsor but is on the school premises. Meiji University likewise has a Karate club on the school premises but without faculty advisor.
3. The Karate club at Nippon University has a faculty advisor, Mr. KATO. Student teachers are YAMASHITA and HAYASHI. The entire club has a membership of approximately thirty students. A demonstration of the techniques of Karate was given. It closely resembles what was called in the U.S. Army, "dirty fighting."
4. Mr. HAYASHI, vice president of the club, gave the following information regarding the difficulty at the school. Members of the club wear a distinctive belt buckle and a cap badge. When a member leaves the club, he is supposed to turn these in. The particular student in question joined for a few days, then resigned, but neglected to turn in the buckle and badge. In fact, he displayed both with abandon. The club members called him in to talk to him, apparently the discussion became heated. One or two members thereupon proceeded to work him over. It was explained that only the flat of the hand was used because the fist is too dangerous. Experts in Karate must be very careful or they may cause serious damage unintentionally. The former member was hurt about the face, which is a part very easily bruised, according to HAYASHI, but not as seriously as newspaper reports said. The former member will be all right in much less than the two weeks noted in the newspapers. Mr. HAYASHI stated that the president and he had expressed their regrets to Mr. KATO, who told them that force is not the way to solve problems. Apparently the boys were somewhat worried because Karate might fall under further suspicion since it is already suspect as a military art.
5. It was noted that Mr. KATO is advisor in name only. He is too busy to take any active part in supervising the club, according to the boys. All such clubs seem to function without any real controls except those required by the clubs themselves.
/S/ J. B. Gibson
Additional Report on Sapporo Kendo Club. (Japanese Fencing Club). August 29, 1949
FROM: Director Mitsusada YOSHIKAWA of Special Examining Bureau, Attorney-General’s Office.
TO: Major Jack P. Napier, Government Section, G.H.Q.
With reference to the subject organization, we previously informed you by report No. 3-23 dated July 8. This time we submit the additional report to you as the preceding paper included some incomplete points.
This club, of which the superintendent is Kanematsu KATAISHI, former member of Butoku Kai and a swordsman of the sixth grade, is composed of 56 members including three women and 25 members out of 56 members are former members of Butoku Kai.
(1). As reported previously [July 1949] this club throws fencing open to the public once a month at the request of the Occupation Forces.
(2). The training of fencing is held by the Club at the Airinkan Hall in preparation for the above open fencing match. The number of those who engage in the training every time is below ten.
(3). It is likely that this club has an intention to continue the usual open fencing match hereafter, if requested by the Occupation Forces.
(4). As already reported, the All Hokkaido Fencing and Halberd Tournament was suspended for a time. Nevertheless the members of the Club are engaging themselves in the training of fencing and halberd, making use of their leisure and believing that the permission of reopening it will be given by the Occupation Forces in the near future.
FROM: Liaison & Investigation
SUBJECT: Alleged Judo Activities at Chuo University
1. An on-the-spot investigation at Chuo University, in conformity with the allegation contained in the attached anonymous letter revealed that the students are engaged in the practice of judo in the basement of the Administration building. This was evidenced by a well-constructed matted floor, and the presence of judo uniform equipment hanging from the surrounding walls.
2. To this inquiry Mr. ASAKAWA, Nobuo, Chief of the Administrative Department of the University, stated: "The university authorities had allocated the area for the practice of judo; however, it was not subsidized by the university nor did they provide an instructor for the practice of this art."
3. Mr. KATO, Masaharu, President of Chuo University, stated: "If this is in violation of existing regulations, we will take the necessary measures to eliminate this activity."
4. Hatsu Tai No. 100, dated 26 December 1945, from the Chief of Physical Education Bureau, Ministry of Education, addressed to all the prefectural governors and presidents of government schools, prohibited "Budo practices, including Judo and Kendo, to be performed in the schools, or in establishments belonging to the schools. Budo equipment was not to be kept in the school and Budo rooms to be reconverted into physical education halls." Hatsu Tai 100 was written in response to SCAPIN 178, 22 October 45, which prohibited all military education and drill.
5. It is recommended by this office that the content of this communication be submitted to the Physical Education Bureau, M/Ed, for action.
/S/ W. O. SHURTLIFF, Capt. Inf.
Letter, Received ATIS: 13 Sep 49, Digest of Letter, No Date, Signed "Tanaka," Cited Above
The writer, studying at Chuo University, reports that students are
judo in the basement of a university building during the noon hour. He
requests that proper measures be taken to stop this if the art of judo
is prohibited in schools by order of the Occupation authorities.
Memorandum to Chief, Civil Information and Education (CIE) Section, 4 March 1950
FROM: Chief, Education Division [Arthur K. Loomis]
SUBJECT: Reinstatement of Budo Sports
1. The attached memorandum and tabs dealing with the problem of whether Budo sports should be reinstated as physical activities in schools and universities of Japan is submitted with recognition that it is not in proper form as a staff study. It may be, however, in satisfactory form for use only within the Section as a basis for following the procedure outlined below:
1. Instruction and practice of Judo, Kendo, Kyudo, Naginata, and Karate have been forbidden in the schools and universities of Japan during the past four years. Efforts have been made by official (sic) and members of the organizations sponsoring and promoting these sports in Japan to:
4. One of the objectives of CIE in the reorganization guidance and supervision of the physical education program in Japan has been to encourage team sports which have sound educational values. This has been accomplished to quite an extent and the discontinuance of budo sports has aided the attainment of this objective greatly. It is not lack of acceptance of these sports by the Japanese educators but lack of equipment, sports areas and gymnasiums which block further progress in the promotion of these activities.
5. Even though it may be considered that the military and ultra-nationalistic influences have been effectively eliminated from the budo sports then inclusion as part of the sports and physical education program of the schools and universities must be carefully considered in the light of educational values which each of these sports has to offer.
1. It seems advisable and opportune to modify the strict regulations forbidding instruction and participation of budo sports in schools and universities to the extent to which they are justifyable (sic) educationally.
2. Therefore it is recommended that Directive No. 74 be interpreted as permitting inclusion of some of these sports within limitations as outlined below.
Letter to C.I.E. of G.H.Q., March 29, 1950
This is to submit a statement explaining about "Pliant Staff Play" and earnestly request your kind approval to join the coming National Athletic Contest.
Your early response and kind guidance will be greatly appreciated by us.
/S/ Junzo Sasamori, Representative of the Pliant Staff Play Club, Tokyo
(Editor’s note: The entire document is written in Sasamori’s own
Pliant Staff Play, Shinai Kyogi
Pliant Staff Play is a good sport which displays excellent features among the recently flourished physical culture in this country.
There are many different kinds of sports: some of them play on land or water, or on playground or in gymnasium in large number of participant or few. Some of them are introduced from the foreign countries and some others are originated in this country. All of them have special characteristics, but they have merits and demerits.
Pliant Staff Play has many advantages; that will be able to play irrespective of climate, weather, age, sex, physique, place, in or out of building or length of time.
This is a rationalistic healthy physical culture and interesting elegant amusement of ever changing active personal adversary play.
Pliant Staff Play is not "Kendo" nor "Occidental Fencing."
Request for Restoration of School Judo, 28 April 1950
FROM: Ministry of Education, Tokyo
TO: General of the Army Douglas MacArthur
Immediately after the termination of the war, the Education Ministry, for the purpose of eliminating all the militaristic color from education, banned judo and certain other sports from school physical education program. Since that time, judo has not been used in school physical education program. However, the Education Ministry has made various studies about this sport and has found that the present judo is a real democratic sport in its true sense, and that the present judo association is democratically organized, and administered and is making a wholesome growth. There no longer exists any possibility of present judo being associated with militaristic idea of the past. Therefore, we have come to conclusion that it will be appropriate to include the present judo as an activity in school physical education program.
At present when lovers of judo are increasing among occupation personnel, we feel the nature of the present judo is, to some extent, known to your office. The study concerning the educational values of the present judo and other pertinent materials were submitted to CIE in July 1949.
We beg your permission to mention here some of the changes which
been made in the present judo.
Judo contributes much to the attainment of the objectives of school
physical education, namely, physical development, mental development,
of social attitude, development of understanding, attitude and
concerning safety and recreation, and its educational value is very
Methods of Practice
Method of Refereeing
Public Interest in Judo
Games and Tournaments
Organization of Judo Lovers
We feel that time has come for inclusion of judo in its present form into school physical education program. We cordially request your consideration about this matter and ask for permission for reinstatement of judo into school physical education program.
/S/ Sotaro Takase, Minister of Education
Memorandum for Japanese Government, AG 000.8 (13 May 50) CIE, SCAPIN 7265-A, 15 September 1950
FROM: General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Forces
SUBJECT: Reinstatement of School Judo
1. Reference letter Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Chief of Liaison Section, FOM No. 946 (EM), dated 183 May 1950, subject: "Application for Restoration of School Judo."
2. No objection is offered to the reinstatement of Judo in the physical education and sports activities of all educational institutions, as defined in the letter from the Minister of Education, dated 12 May 1950, entitled "Request for Restoration of School Judo."
FOR THE SUPREME COMMANDER:
/s/ K. B. Bush, Brigadier General, USA, Adjutant General
|1.||6 August 1946||A petition addressed to the Education Minister signed by 3590 members of former judo and kendo units of 30 higher schools for revival of judo and kendo in the schools of Japan.|
|2.||7 August 1946||Petition No. 537 addressed to the House of Representatives by Miyoji Higashi, Judo Expert and introduced by members of the Diet asking for promotion of judo as a sport for the nation.|
|3.||15 August 1946||Proposal No. 79 submitted to the House of Representatives by Shunji Tahara, Judo Expert and Diet member, and other 149 Diet members for restoration of judo practice in schools.|
|4.||23 November 1946||Petitions addressed to the Education Minister signed by the participants in the All-Japan Normal and Youth Normal School Athletic Meet, asking for revival of Judo.|
|5.||23 November 1946||A petition addressed to the Education Minister signed by about forty alumni of Tokyo Higher Normal School for Men asking for reinstatement of judo in school curriculum.|
|6.||18 May 1947||A petition requesting the revival of kyudo among students, signed by representatives of 5 universities and 2 schools|
|7.||30 July 1947||A petition addressed to Physical Education Officers, CIE signed by representatives of the Girls’ Archery Club asking for revival of kyudo among girl students.|
|8.||13 August 1948||A memorandum to SCAP from the Japanese Ministry of Education concerning modifications of the regulations governing budo sports.|
|9.||24 December 1948||A petition addressed to Physical Education Consultant, CIE, signed by K. Ushioda, President of Keio University, S. Ishimaru, Director of the Keio University Athletic Club and over 5000 students and faculty members of the university asking for reinstatement of judo as a college activity.|
|10.||20 January 1949||A petition addressed to General MacArthur, signed by representatives of students in the Meiji and Chuo Universities with signatures of 6113 collected by the students, asking for permission to practice judo on the campus.|
|11||4 November 1949||A petition addressed to the Minister of Education, signed by representatives of the Japan Judo Association asking for restoration of judo in the schools.|
|12.||9 November 1949||A petition addressed to the Minister of Education, signed by the representatives of the Nippon Kyudo Association asking for restoration of kyudo in the schools.|
Sample Petitions 1: List of Schools Petitioning for the Restoration of Kendo (Undated)
|Tokyo Commercial College||
|Tokyo Higher Normal School||
|Oizumi Normal School||
|First Higher Normal School||
|Tokyo Imperial University||
We, the undersigned students representing various colleges and universities in Tokyo take the liberty of submitting for your consideration our petition for the reinstatement of Kendo as an elective scholastic sport.
Kendo during the war had its entire structure changed in conformance to the expressed demands of the government and military ultra-nationalists. Although this fact was in direct contradiction to the wishes of we lovers of the sport, it presented the outward appearance of being a militaristic exercise and subsequently after the termination of the war, the Education Ministry was pressed to banish Kendo from the schools. The abovementioned fact was indeed of the greatest regret as well as a surprise to we Kendo enthusiasts…
Although scholastically prohibited Kendo has been permitted to be practised in outside Kendo halls as a social sport, we students who have practised it for the pure pleasure of it since we were young boys still retain confidence and pride in our skill which we have attained during the years and we desire to make outward expression of our skill and put our prowess to test in a pleasurable competition with other students of other schools…
The reason we love Kendo is simply because we love sports and competition and as every individual has his own particular taste and interest we follow Kendo for the simple enjoyment of it.
And again during the war Kendo suffered much abuse at the hands of the military instructors attached to the various schools who denounced it as impracticable and was ridiculed as being "child’s play" or the mere dancing with bamboo sticks. There were also many instances where Kendo was thrown completely out of the athletic program and was replaced by the more ‘practicable’ bayonet and target practises and finally through duress of the military we were forced to change the entire structure of the game. During this period the Student’s Kendo Federation was also forced to disband and has remained so to this day.
As we have just mentioned, we students do not believe that scholastically practised Kendo was ever militaristic or warlike in its true nature; on the contrary we firmly believe that it has always been a wholesome and peaceful sport. It goes without saying that combat style Kendo formulated by the Army and Navy should be thrown out. On the other hand it is of the deepest regret to us that our Kendo had gone through such a process to become banished from the schools. Even though pre-war Kendo was abused by the militarists, the fact that it was utilized by them may have been because of the deficiencies embodied within it. We shall endeavor to correct these deficiencies in order to rebuild a new Kendo worthy of a peace loving Japan.
The above is the substance of our ardent desire to have Kendo restored so that we may again seek enjoyment as well as develop ourselves physically and mentally in the pursuit of the sport of our liking.
Even though the signatures in this petition may only cover a part of the colleges located in and around Tokyo, they are the frank expressions of students who love the sport and we shall feel deeply obliged if you would give primary consideration to this petition.
Respectfully submitted.(Editor’s note: The rest of the file consists of the original 1,344 student signatures.)
Sample Petitions 2: Restoration of School Kyudo, 9 Nov. 1949
To: Minister of Education, Sotaro Takano
Kyudo, which was suppressed by the army and others during the War on the ground of not being a warlike sport, was suspended from the students after the War on the ground of its being the sport of military arts. The general amateurs also decreased. However, the effort to abolish the nationalist and mystic idea and to revive as a true amateur sport unexpectedly aroused sympathy of the whole country, and in a few months, it was materialized markedly. For instance, to the Kyudo event at the 4th Kokumin Taiiku Taikai, as many as thirty-five prefectures sent their men’s teams exclusively…
Women’s Kyudo was already on the extreme decline during the War and its revival was feared. But, responding to the local demand, for the first time after the War, the women’s Kyudo was added to the Meet as an event, and unexpected number of teams participated in it.
The players amounted to 185, exceeding the limit (128) by far. This, together with the above fact, shows how amateurs are earnest in Kyudo’s revival and promotion as a sound sport for amateurs. Moreover, though the event was the inter-prefecural (sic) play, there was no abstention nor disqualification. All players, committee-men and spectators were in perfect harmony. The players were not particular about victory or defeat, and there was not a single miss in sports and management. It is considered that all these were the results of the ardent endevour (sic) and cooperation of all amateurs….
Members of Nippon Kyudo Remmei
Chairman: Minoru Higuchi
Vice-Chairman: Kunisaku Shimura
"" Katsumi Takeuchi
Trustee: Ryohei Sekiguchi
"" Goro Murai, graduate of Waseda University
"" Zenji Odaira, graduate of Keio University.
"" Takeo Kejiya, graduate of Tokyo University
"" Hisashi Murakami, graduate of Waseda University
"" Takeshi Kurushima, graguate (sic) of Keio University
"" Chuzo Ando
"" Kiyoshi Fukushima, graguate (sic) of Meiji University
"" Nakugoro (?) Hattanda, graduage (sic) of Nippon University
"" Toshiaki Miyasaka, graduate of Tokyo University
Vice-chairman of Tokyo Metoropolitan (sic) Kyudo Remmei:
Koyama, graduate of Keio University.
EN1. According to "Outline of the Butokukai (Martial Virtues Society) and its relation to the Purge," submitted by Koizumi, 21 Feb 1947, there were about "5000 martial arts instructors at the time of the abolition of martial arts education," 800 of whom were graduates of Butokukai technical colleges.
EN2. According to Benjamin Hazard (2002), who was training with the Tokyo police kendo instructor during this era, "The Tokyo police in attempting to control the disorder that accompanied the Communist May Day demonstrations, May 1, 1949, used the jô (staff) for crowd control. The GHQ provost marshal (Beigun Sôshireibu Kempeitai-chô) had seen that some of the Communists had been able to seize some of the staffs and were beating the police with them. The provost marshal was able to have orders issued prohibiting kendo training for all the police. Kendo was reinstated later in that year, but when practice resumed, those elements in kendo which were clearly associated with a real sword, such as the slicing movement after the cut, [were missing], nor were blows delivered with as much strength as they had been prior to the ban."
EN3. According to the July 1949 memo cited here, Airin Kan was a crèche in Sapporo whose name translated as Neighbor Loving Hall. Its date of formation was October 1947, and its official name was Sapporo Kendo Kurabu, or Sapporo Japanese Fencing Club. The chief instructor was Kanematsu Kataishi. Yuso Ito, the local head of an insurance company, provided financial patronage. The club performed demonstrations for Occupation forces, especially at the hospitals at Chitose and Makoma. "Our opinion," wrote chief investigator M. Yoshikawa, was, "This is a club in which general people who are interested in Japanese fencing are mutually practicing it at their own free accord. It is not regarded at present as the quasi-military training beyond the scope of sports (exercise and match) and is considered that it may be all right to allow its continuance."
EN4. The Zen Nippon Kendo Kyogi Remmei (All Japan
Kendo Federation) was established on March 5, 1950. This organization’s
name was subsequently changed to Zen Nippon Shinai Kyogi Remmei (All
Pliant Competition Federation). In October 1952, a separate Zen Nippon
Kendo Remmei was organized, and in March 1954, the Zen Nippon Shinai
Remmei merged with it, thus ending "Pliant Competition."