Journal of Non-lethal Combatives, Nov 2003


For Further Reading 2003

By Joseph Svinth
Copyright © EJMAS 2003.
Updated November 2003.


"The Gentle Soldier's Shopping Cart," by Eugene Ciurana, Omni Magazine,

"Nonlethal near Death," by Eugene Ciurana, Omni Magazine,

"The Somalia Experiment," by Eugene Ciurana, Omni Magazine,

"What Price Sticky Foam?" by Martin N. Stanton, reprinted from Proceedings with permission. © 1996 U.S. Naval Institute, Parameters,

"The Fuzzy Ethics of Nonlethal Weapons," by Brad Knickerbocker, Christian Science Monitor, February 14, 2003,

US Governmental or Major Defense Contractor sites

Department of Defense (DOD) briefing on non-lethal weapons, February 1995,

DOD Joint Non-Lethal Weapons program,

Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, (List of papers; files are in Adobe 3.0 and are slow to download)

TRADOC PAM 525-73, C1, "Concept for Nonlethal Capabilities in Army Operations,"

United States Army Infantry Center, Fort Benning, April 27, 1998, "Infantry Branch Concept for Tactical Nonlethal Capabilities,"

Opposition sites

"Nonlethal Weapons: A Global Issue," by Cheryl Welsh, at

Chemical Weapons

US military publications of interest include US Army Field Manual 3-9, Military Chemistry and Chemical Compounds, October 1975; Field Manual 3-9, Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds, December 1990; and Field Manual 8-9, NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations, August 1973. That said, if you can't find more details about CS, CN, OC, etc., on the Internet than you know what to do with, then you aren't trying. For a sample chemical defense site, see the site posted by Hazmat Chemical Associates,

Unarmed Combatives

For an introduction to current US Army doctrine see Field Manual 3-25-150, at Portions of the equivalent 1942 publication appear at This manual remained in use in the US Air Force into the early 1950s. For an introduction to the judo and karate program subsequently adopted by the Air Force, and in use into the 1960s, see

My current research suggests that postwar Danzan Ryu practitioners have exaggerated the influence of Danzan Ryu on the methods shown in the 1942 manual. Why? First, Raymond "Duke" Moore, a future leader of Danzan Ryu, achieved 1-dan ranking at the New York Dojo in 1944. Second, many Danzan Ryu practitioners served in the US military, and the techniques shown are similar. At any rate, additional research is required. Known judo clubs in New York during the 1930s included the New York Dojo and the German-American Jiu-Jitsu Club. Leaders of the New York Dojo included George Yoshida and Shozo Kuwashima, while students of the German-American Jiu-Jitsu Club included Charles Yerkow. The influence of Francois D'Eliscu needs to be documented, too.

Portions of the Army's 1946 doctrine appear at An online version of the 1992 doctrine appears at There is also an edition from 1954 ("Hand-to-Hand Combat") and 1971 ("Combatives"). Both photocopies and actual manuals can be purchased through various online sources.

The Army's interest in judo, however, actually dates to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Rather than a judo teacher, it hired a professional wrestler named Tom Jenkins for instruction at West Point. Judo was, however, taught to soldiers during World War I. See, for instance, and

The US Marine Corps has separate doctrine. For the current iteration, see, for instance:

For discussions of the programs immediately preceding Marine Corps Martial Art, see Marine Corps Gazette. Recommended readings include Capt. Charles M. Dunne, "Elimination of Combat Hitting Skills from Recruit Training: Cutting Our Nose Off to Spite Our Face" (December 1998) and Capt. Clinton J. Chlebowski, "Grappling with Close Combat" (October 1999). To order copies, send US $2.50 per article requested to the Editor, Marine Corps Gazette, Box 1775, Quantico, VA 22134. If foreign, remember to add another dollar to cover international postage.

Besides orthodox judo and karate, influences on Marine Corps Martial Art included the First Earth Battalion concepts pioneered by TRADOC during the 1970s. For more on this, see,, and Richard Strozzi Heckler, In Search of the Warrior Spirit (Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Press, 1992)

You should also check websites belonging to the militaries and police forces of the various NATO countries. For example, there are some intriguing bibliographic suggestions on the Royal Canadian Mounted Police website at

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JNC Nov 2003