Journal of Combative Sport, Nov 2007

Boxing Injury Bibliography

Compiled by Joseph R. Svinth
Includes contributions from Jack Anderson and Jason Couch
Copyright © EJMAS 2001-2007. All rights reserved.


This bibliography supports the analysis of boxing fatalities found at

Many medical journal articles cited below can be found online. To find these journal articles, try and

There have been at least two deaths in the cognate sport of mixed martial arts (MMA). One was the death of Alfred Castro Herrera in Tijuana, Mexico, in April 1981. Herrera was aged 15. His opponent was Angel Luis Rodriguez, Age 16. The source is St. Louis Globe-Democrat, April 15, 1981. The other death involved Douglas Dedge, an American who died in Kiev, Ukraine, in March 1998. His opponent was Yevgeni Zolotarev. A photo can be viewed at For discussions of the risks in mixed martial arts, see Gregory Bledsoe, et al., “Incidence of injury in professional Mixed Martial Arts competition,” Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (July 2006) 5, pp. 136-142, George J. Buse, “No holds barred sport fighting: A 10 year review of Mixed Martial Arts competition,” British Journal of Sports Medicine (2006) 40, pp. 169-172, and Joshua Landa, “Risks and injuries in contact fighting,” Journal of Combative Sport, August 2004.

If you have suggestions for additions, please contact me at

Part 1: Medical Articles

Ashley, Mark J. (2001, July 28) Mild traumatic brain injuries in sports: What are the signs?

Athletes at risk: Second Impact Syndrome in sports (2001, July 28)

Bass, A. (Editor) (1965) The medical aspects of boxing: British Association of Sports Medicine Conference held at the Goldsmiths’ College London (November 1963) Oxford: Pergamon

Beaussart, M., and Beaussart-Boulenge, L. (1970) “Experimental” study of cerebral concussion in 123 amateur boxers, by clinical examination and EEG before and immediately after fights, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 29, pp. 529-530

Bellotti, P., Chiarella, F., Domenicucci, S., and Lupi G. (1992) Myocardial contusion after a professional boxing match, American Journal of Cardiology 69, pp. 709-710

Blonstein, J. L. (1966) Sport and medicine: Medical aspects of amateur boxing, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 59, pp. 649-652

-----. (1969a) Boxing injuries, Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 18, pp. 100-103

-----. (1969b) Control of swelling in boxing injuries, Practitioner 203, p. 206

-----. (1974) Traumatic encephalopathy in a young boxer, Lancet 2, p. 1213

-----. (1977) Care of the amateur boxer, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 17, pp. 79-82

Blonstein, J. L. and Clarke, Edwin (1954, December 25) The medical aspects of amateur boxing, British Medical Journal, pp. 1523-1525

----- (1957, February 16) Further observations on the medical aspects of amateur boxing, British Medical Journal pp. 362-364

Bragman, James Bennett (2004, February 1) Boxing and martial arts

Brennan, T. N. and O’Connor, P. J. (1968) Incidence of boxing injuries in the Royal Air Force in the United Kingdom 1953-1966, British Journal of Industrial Medicine 25, pp. 326-329

Breton, F., Pincemaille, Y., Tarriere, C., and Renault, B. (1991) Event-related potential assessment of attention and the orienting reaction in boxers before and after a fight, Biological Psychology 31, pp. 57-71

British Medical Association (1983) The Boxing Debate. London: British Medical Association

Brown, John W. (1953, January 5) Final report to the University of Wisconsin Athletic Board to the faculty concerning boxing as a collegiate sport. University of Wisconsin Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine and Student Health, and Consultants, Document 1066

Burns, R. (1986) Boxing and the brain, ANZAC Journal of Medicine 16, p. 439

Busse, Ewald W. and Silverman, Albert J. (1952, August 23) Electroencephalographic changes in professional boxers, Journal of the American Medical Association 149:17, pp. 1522-1525

Butler, R. J. (1994) Neuropsychological investigation of amateur boxers, British Journal of Sports Medicine 28, pp. 187-190

Butler, R. J., Forsythe, W. I., Beverly, D. W., and Adams, L. M. (1993) A prospective controlled investigation of the cognitive effects of amateur boxing, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 56, pp. 1055-1061

Buttery, C. M. G. (1989) Boxing in the army, Journal of the American Medical Association 262, pp. 2089-2090

Cantu, R. (1995) Boxing and Medicine Leeds: Human Kinetics

Carp, Gerald (1974, November 7) Boxing–the hazards and their prevention, Nursing Times, pp. 1738-1740

Carr, Jesse L. and Moody, A. M. (1939, October) Boxer’s hemorrhage, California and Western Medicine 51:4, pp. 227-230

Carroll, Edward J. Jr. (1936, May) Punch-drunk, American Journal of Medical Science 191, pp. 706-712

Casson, Ira R., Sham, Raj, Campbell, Edwin A., Tarlau, Milton, and DiDomenico, Anthony (1982) Neurological and CT evaluation of knocked-out boxers, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 45, pp. 170-174

-----. (1984) Brain damage in modern boxers, Journal of the American Medical Association 251, pp. 2663-2667

Corsellis, J. A. (1989) Boxing and the brain, British Medical Journal 105, p. 298

Corsellis, J. A., Bruton, C. J. and Freeman-Browne, D. (1973) The aftermath of boxing, Psychological Medicine 3, pp. 270-303

Courville, Cyril B. (1942) Coup-contrecoup mechanism of cranio-cerebral injuries, Archives of Surgery 45, pp. 19-43

-----. (1950) The mechanism of coup-contrecoup injuries of the brain, Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Society 15, pp. 72-86

-----. (1962) Forensic Neuropathology, II: Mechanisms of craniocerebral injury and their medicolegal significance, Journal of Forensic Sciences 7, pp. 1-28

-----. (1962) Forensic Neuropathology, III: Intracranial hemorrhage--spontaneous versus traumatic, Journal of Forensic Sciences 7, pp. 158-188

-----. (1962, December) Punch drunk: Its pathogenesis and pathology on the basis of a verified case, Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Society 27, pp. 160-168

-----. (1964, June) The mechanism of boxing fatalities, Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Society 29:2, pp. 59-69

Cousteau, J. P. (1993) Myocardial contusion during boxing, American Journal of Cardiology 71, p. 493

Cowart, V. S. (1989) Amateur boxing, Journal of the American Medical Association 262, p. 500

Critchley, M. (1957) Medical aspects of boxing, British Medical Journal 1, p. 357

Cruikshank, J. K., Higgens, C. S., and Gray, J. R. (1980) Two cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage in young amateur boxers, Lancet 1, pp. 626-627

Curfman, G. D. (1998, June 18) Fatal impact--concussion of the heart, New England Journal of Medicine 338:25, pp. 1841-1843

Davie, C. A., Pirtosek, Z., Barker, G. J. Kingsley, D. P., Miller, P. H., and Lees, A. J. (1995) Magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of parkinsonism related to boxing, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 58, pp. 688-691

Drake, David F. and Cifu, David (2002) Repetitive head injury syndrome, E-medicine

Elia, Joseph Charles (1962) Traumatic headache associated with the profession of boxing, Headache 2, pp. 138-146

-----. (1971) Head injuries in boxing, International Surgery 56, pp. 334-343

Enzenauer, R. W., Mauldin, W. M. (1989, May) Boxing-related ocular injuries in the United States Army, 1980 to 1985, Southern Medical Journal 82:5 pp. 547-549

Enzenauer, R. W., Montrey, J. S., Enzenauer, R.J., Mauldin, W. M. (1989, March) Boxing-related injuries in the US Army, 1980 through 1985, Journal of the American Medical Association 261, pp. 1463-1466

Evans, Randolph W. (1992) The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury, Neurologic Clinics 10, pp. 815-847

Fausset, C. Basil (1958, January) Neurological situations related to athletic injuries, Journal of the Indiana State Medical Association 31, pp. 36-39

Finney, J. L. (1989) Boxing in the army, Journal of the American Medical Association 262, p. 2089

Fish, Mike (2002, September 20) The boxing boondoggle: Referees, doctors hip deep in conflicting interests, Sport Illustrated

Giovinazzo, Vincent J., Yanunuzzi, Lawrence A., Sorenson, John A., Delrowe, Daniel J., and Cambell, Edwin A. (1987, June) The ocular complications of boxing, Ophthalmology 94:6, pp. 587-596

Gonzales, T. A. (1951) Fatal injuries in competitive sports, Journal of the American Medical Association 146, pp. 1506-1511

Govons, S. R. (1968) Brain concussion and posture: The knockdown blow of the boxing ring, Confinia Neurologica 30, pp. 77-84

Graham, J. W. (1955, January 22) Professional boxing and the doctor, British Medical Journal, pp. 219-221

Grossarthmaticek, R., Eysenck, H. J., Rieder, H. and Rakic, L. (1990) Psychological factors as determinants of success in football and boxing. The effects of behaviour therapy, International Journal of Sport Psychology 21, pp. 237-255

Gunn, M. (1995) The legality of boxing, 15 Legal Studies (2) 181, pp. 194-195

Guterman, Andrew and Smith, Robert W. (1987) Neurological sequalae of boxing, Sports Medicine 4, pp. 194-210

Guttman, E. and Winterstein, C. E. (1938, March) Disturbances of consciousness after head injuries: Observations on boxers, Journal of Mental Science 84, pp. 347-351

Haglund, Y. and Eriksson, E. (1993, January-February) Does amateur boxing lead to chronic brain damage? A review of some recent investigations, American Journal of Sports Medicine 21, pp. 97-109

Haines, Jr., J. D. (1994) Let’s stop boxing in the Olympics and the US military, Journal of the American Medical Association 272, p. 1821

Hall, C. W., Deckart, D. E., Nunemaker, M. E., and Crawford, R. A. (1952, August) Acute traumatic subdural hematoma: Report of a case with slight trauma from boxing, Journal of the Kansas Medical Society, pp. 377-378

Harris, C. Harris, DiRusso, S., Sullivan, T., and Benzil, D.L. (2004, May) Mortality risk after head injury increases at 30 years, Journal of American College of Surgeons 198:5, pp. 852-853

Harvey, P. K .P. and Newsom Davis, J. (1974, October 19) Traumatic encephalopathy in a young boxer, Lancet, pp. 928-929

Heilbronner, R. L., Henry, G. K., and Carson-Brewer, M. (1991) Neuropsychologic test performance in amateur boxers, American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, pp. 376-380

Hernandez, Manuel and Ufberg, Jacob W. (2001) Boxer’s fracture, E-medicine

Hof, P. R., Bouras, C., Buee, L., Delacourte, A. Perl, D. P., and Morrison, J. H. (1992) Differential distribution of neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex of dementia pugilistica and Alzheimer’s disease cases, Acta Neuropathologica 85, pp. 23-30

Holzgraefe, M., Lemme, W., Funke, W., and Felix, R. (1992) The significance of diagnostic imaging in acute and chronic brain damage in boxing: A prospective study in amateur boxing using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), International Journal of Sports Medicine 13, pp. 616-620

Hussey, H. H. (1976) Punch drunk, Journal of the American Medical Association 236, p. 485

Isherwood, I., Mawdsley, C., and Ferguson, F. R. (1966) Pneumoencephalographic changes in boxers, Acta Radiologica: Diagnosis 5, pp. 654-661

Jokl, E. (1947) Fatal cerebral injury in boxers, Lancet 1, p. 888

Jokl, E. and Guttman, E. (1933) Neurologisch-psychiatrische Untersuchung an Boxern, Münch. Med. Woch. 1, p. 560

Johnson, J., Skorecki, J., and Wells, R. P. (1975, May) Peak accelerations of the head experienced in boxing, Medical and Biological Engineering, pp. 396-403

Johnson, John. (1969). Organic psychosyndromes due to boxing, British Journal of Psychiatry 115, pp. 45-53

Jordan, Barry D. (1993) Medical Aspects of Boxing. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press

Jordan, Barry D., Matser, Eric J. T., Zimmerman, Robert D., and Zazula, Tania (1996, May) Sparring and cognitive function in professional boxers. The Physician and Sportsmedicine 24:5,

Jordan, Barry D., Voy, Robert O., and Stone, Jennifer (1990, February) Amateur boxing injuries at the US Olympic training center, The Physician and Sportsmedicine 18:2, pp. 81-90

Kaplan, Harry A. and Browder, Jefferson (1954, November 20) Observations on the clinical and brain wave patterns of professional boxers, Journal of the American Medical Association 156:12, pp. 1138-1144

Kaste, M., Vilkki J., Sainio, K., Kuurne, T., Katevuo, K., and Meurala, H. (1982, November 27) Is chronic brain damage in boxing a hazard of the past? Lancet, pp. 1186-1188

Kelly, J. P., Nichols, J. S., Filley, C. M., Lillehei, K. O., Rubinstein, D., and Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B. K. (1991) Concussion in sports. Guidelines for the prevention of catastrophic outcome, Journal of the American Medical Association 266, pp. 2867-2869

Kewalramani, L. S., Orth, M. S., and Krauss, Jess F. (1981) Cervical spine injuries resulting from collision sports, International Medical Society of Paraplegia 19, pp. 301-312

La Cava, Giuseppe (1963) Boxer’s encephalopathy, Journal of Sports Medicine 3, pp. 87-92

Lampert, P. W. and Hardman, J. M. (1984) Morphologic changes in brains of boxers, Journal of the American Medical Association 251, pp. 2676-2679

Larsen, L. E., Melin, K. A., Nordstrøm-Øhrberg, G., Silfverskiøld, B. P., and Øhrberg, K. (1954) Acute head injuries in boxers: Clinical and electroencephalographic studies, Acta psychologica et neurologica Scandinavica (Suppl. 95), pp. 1-42

Leach, A., McGalliard, J., Dwyer, M. H., and Wong, D. (1992) Ocular injuries from boxing, British Medical Journal 304, pp. 839-840

Leach, R. E. (1993) The sport of boxing, American Journal of Sports Medicine 21, p. 1

Lundberg. G. D. (1994). Let’s stop boxing in the Olympics and the United States military, Journal of the American Medical Association 271, p. 1790

Maguire, Joseph I. and Benson, William (1986, May 9) Retinal injury and detachment in boxers, Journal of the American Medical Association 255:18, pp. 2451-2453

Mahony, C. (2000, February 24) Injury time, Nursing Times 96:8, pp. 14-15; see also (1995, February 1) Nursing Times 91:5, pp. 52-54

Maron, Barry J., Poliac, Liviu C., Kaplan, James A., and Mueller, Frederick O. (1995, August 10) Blunt impact to the chest leading to sudden death from cardiac arrest during sports activities, New England Journal of Medicine 333:6, pp. 337-342

Martland, Harrison S. (1928). Punch drunk, Journal of the American Medical Association 91, pp. 1103-1107

Marwick, C. (1993) Protecting boxers who won’t quit, Journal of the American Medical Association 269, p. 1083

Matser, Eric, Kessels, J. T., Alphons, G. H., Lezak, Muriel D., Troost, Jaap, and Jordan, Barry D. (2000, January) Acute traumatic brain injury in amateur boxing, Physician and Sportsmedicine 28:1,

Mawdsley, C. and Ferguson, F. R. (1963, October 19) Neurological disease in boxers, Lancet, pp. 795-800

McLeod, D. (1992) Ocular injuries from boxing, British Medical Journal 304, p. 197

Mendez, M.F. (1995) The neuropsychiatric aspects of boxing, International Journal of Psychiatry Medicine 25:3, pp. 249-262

Miele, Vincent J, Carson, Larry, Carr, Ann, and Bailes, Julian E. (2004, November) Acute or chronic subdural hematoma in a female boxer: A case report, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 36:11, pp. 1852-1855

Millspaugh, J. A. (1937) Dementia pugilistica, U.S. Naval Medicine Bulletin 35, pp. 297-303

Morrison, Robert Glenn (1986, May 9) Medical and public health aspects of boxing, Journal of American Medical Association 255:18, pp. 2475-2480

Moxon, J. E .U. (1992) Boxing injuries, British Medical Journal 305, p. 1438

National Health and Medical Research Council. 1994. Boxing injuries, Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service,

National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health (2002) MEDLINE Plus: Head and brain injuries,

Neuberger, Karl T., Sinton, David W., and Denst, John (1959) Cerebral atrophy associated with boxing, American Medical Association Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 81, pp. 403-408

O’Connor, Francis G., Kugler, John P., and Oriscello, Ralph G. (1998, June) Sudden death in young athletes: screening for the needle in a haystack, American Family Physician,

Ohhashi, G., Tani, S., Murakami, S., Kamio, M., Abe, T, and Ohtuki, J. (2002, February) Problems in health management of professional boxers in Japan, British Journal of Sports Medicine 36, pp. 346-352,

Okeke, L. I., Dogo, D., Ladipo, J. K. and Ajao, O. G. (1993) Crush injuries of the hand, African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 22, pp. 69-72

Pappas, Evangelos. (2007, October 1) Boxing, wrestling and martial arts related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States, 2002-2005, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 6(CSSI-2), 58-61,

Parker, Harry L. (1934, July) Traumatic encephalopathy (“punch drunk”) of professional pugilists, Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology 15, pp. 20-28

Patton, Joe H., Kralovich, Kurt A., Cuschieri, Joseph, and Gasparri, Mario (2000) Clearing the cervical spine in victims of blunt assault to the head and neck: What is necessary? American Surgeon 66:4,

Paul, Milroy (1957, February 16) A fatal injury at boxing (traumatic decerebrate rigidity), British Medical Journal, pp. 364-366

Payne, J. P. (1993) Boxing injuries, British Medical Journal 306, p. 212

Pearn, John (2000) Boxing, brains and balls, Medicine Today 1,

Pelech, Andrew N. (2006, August 18) Coronary artery anomalies, Emedicine,

Plant, J. R., and Butt, J. C. (1993) Laceration of vertebral artery: An historic boxing death, American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 14, pp. 61-64

Porter, M., O’Brien, M. (1996, April) Incidence and severity of injuries resulting from amateur boxing in Ireland, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 6:2, pp. 97-101

Richards, P. (1993) Boxing and the neurosurgeon, British Journal of Neurosurgery 7, pp. 595-596

Roberts, A. H. (1969) Brain damage in boxers: A study of the prevalence of traumatic encephalopathy among ex-professional boxers, London: Pitman Medical & Scientific Publishing Co.

Roberts, G. W., Allsop, D., and Bruton, C. (1990) The occult aftermath of boxing, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 53, pp. 373-378

Ross, R. T. and Ochsner, M. G. Jr. (1999, January) Acute intracranial boxing-related injuries in U.S. Marine Corps recruits: report of two cases, Military Medicine 164:1, pp. 68-70

Ryan, A. J. (1992) Banning boxing, Physician and Sportsmedicine 20, p. 29

Schmid, L. (1970) Kidney lesions in boxing, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 10, pp. 265-268

Schmid, L., Hajek, E., Votipka, F., Teprik, O., and Blonstein, J. L. (1968) Experiences with headgear in boxing, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 8, pp. 171-176

Schmidt-Olsen, S., Jensen, S. K., and Mortensen V. (1990) Amateur boxing in Denmark: The effect of some preventive measures, American Journal of Sports Medicine 18, pp. 98-100

Schwartz, Michael L., Hudson, Alan R., Fernie, Geoffrey R, Hayashi, Ken, and Coleclough, Allan A. (1986) Biomechanical study of full-contact karate contrasted with boxing, Journal of Neurosurgery 64, pp. 248-252

Sercl, M. and Jaros, O. (1962, May) The mechanisms of cerebral concussion in boxing and their consequences, World Neurology 3, pp. 351-358

Siegler, J. (1993) The dangers of boxing: Damage not confined to the brain, British Medical Journal 307, p. 379

Spillane, John D. (1962, November 10) Five boxers, British Medical Journal 2, pp. 1205-1210

Stenning, W. (1992) Boxing, Medical Journal of Australia 156, pp. 76-77

Swartzberg, D. (1995) Air Force Academy ends mandatory boxing activity, Journal of the American Medical Association 274, p. 784

Temmes, Yrjö and Huhmar, Erkki (1952) Electro-encephalographic changes in boxers, Acta Psychologica et Neurologica Scandinavia 27, pp. 175-180

Thomassen, Anne, Juul-Jensen, Palle, Olivarius, Bent de Fine, Braemer, Jørgen, and Christensen, Anne-Lise (1979) Neurological, electroencephalographic and neuropsychological examination of 53 former amateur boxers, Acta Neurologica Scandinavia 60, pp. 352-362

Unterharnscheidt, Friedrich (1970, Winter) About boxing: Review of historical and medical aspects, Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine 28:4, pp. 421-495

-----. (1975) Injuries due to boxing and other sports, in P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Editors), Handbook of Clinical Neurology 23, Brain and Spinal Chord Injuries, Part I, Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing, pp. 527-593

-----. (2003) Boxing: Medical Aspects, Julia Taylor Unterharnscheidt (Editor). London and San Diego: Academic Press

Uzych, L. (1992) Banning boxing, Physician and Sportsmedicine 20, p. 29

Valentino, B., Esposito, L. C., and Fabozzo, A. (1990) Electromyographic activity of a muscular group in movements specific to boxing, Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 30, pp. 160-162

Voy, R. O. (1989) Amateur boxing, Journal of the American Medical Association 262, pp. 499-500

Whiteson, A. (1992) Ocular injuries from boxing, British Medical Journal 304, p. 574

Winterstein, C. E. (1937, September 18) Head injuries attributable to boxing, Lancet 2, pp. 719-720

Zazryn, T. R., Finch, C. F., and McCrory, P. (2003, August) 16 year study of injuries to professional boxers in the state of Victoria, Australia, British Journal of Sports Medicine 37:4, pp. 321-324

Zazryn, T.R., Cameron, P., and McCrory, P. (2006, June) A prospective cohort study of injury in amateur and professional boxing, British Journal of Sports Medicine 40, pp. 670-674

Part 2: Some Significant Legal Decisions that Followed Ring Deaths

JCS Nov 2007