SEVERAL REMARKS ON THE
BLOßECHTEN SECTION OF CODEX WALLERSTEIN
Journal of Western Martial Art
by Grzegorz Zabiñski
The paper deals with selected aspects of Bloßfechten (unarmoured combat)
with the longsword as depicted in one of the most renowned, yet still unpublished
source of medieval swordsmanship known as Codex
Augsburg, I. 6.4°.2). Firstly, the author deals with the very structure
of the manuscripts, proving that it actually consists of two different
manuals (the one from late fourteenth-early fifteenth century, the other
from about mid-fifteenth century, which were later put together). Furthermore,
the question of the way in which the section under analysis was accomplished
is discussed: it is suggested that the images were put in first, and then
provided with relevant comments. Next, the author attempts classifying
the weapon presented in the section by means of comparing it to a well-known
and commonly accepted typology of Robert E. Oakeshott. Moreover, several
remarks concerning the functionality of such particular types of weapon
are introduced. Furthermore, the author deals with several general fighting
principles as presented in the manuscript, trying to affiliate them to
the school of German swordsmaster Johannes Liechtenauer; however, he notices
several similarities to other fencing manuals, with special regard to that
of Fiore dei Liberi. Then, the comments concerning particular plates and
fighting actions presented on them are provided. Next, the author attempts
to show several similarities between the actions presented and those depicted
in other medieval fencing manuals. Finally, conclusions and suggestions
for further research (comprising in the first instance the necessity of
a critical edition of the manuscript) are provided.
aim of this paper is to comment on the unarmoured long sword fighting as
presented in one of the best known late medieval Fechtbuch, the
Codex Wallerstein. The manuscript containing this manual is preserved in
the collection of the Universitätsbibliothek Augsburg (I.6.4?.2). The codex
is a paper quarto manuscript, written in Middle High German, containing
221 pages (108 numbered charts, and several unnumbered ones at the beginning),
numbered every odd one in the upper right corner, starting from page 4
which is given No. 1. Page 1 contains a date 1549, a name of one of the
Baumans, and the word Fechtbuch, while pages 2 and 3 are blank.
This manual seems to consist of two different Fechtbücher (for the
sake of convenience called further A and B), which were put together and
later given a common pagination.
Part A (No. 1 recto-No. 75 recto, and No. 108 verso; thus consisting of
151 pages) is probably from the second half of the fifteenth century, on
account of both the representations of arms and armour on No. 1 verso (full
plate armours and armets) and No. 2 recto, andthe
details of costumes on No. 108 verso.
On the other hand, part B (No. 76 recto-No. 108 recto; 66 pages) is probably
of much earlier origin, which, on account of the details of armour (bascinets
without visors or bascinets with early types of visors; mail hauberks;
garments worn on the cuirasses) can be dated to late fourteenth-early fifteenth
As mentioned, it is difficult to deal extensively with the history of
the codex without having the real manuscript at one's disposal-anyway,
it is not the purpose of this contribution. However, it is worth noticing
that this Fechtbuch belonged once to one of the most famous sixteenth-century
authors of combat manuals, Paulus Hector Mair;
and it was he who was the author of the contents of the manuscript (No.
109 recto), and several minor remarks on the number of pages for particular
sections of the manual, which were inserted on some places in the codex.
Codex Wallerstein, like many other medieval and Renaissance Fechtbücher,
contains a wide range of sections devoted to particular weapons and kinds
of fighting: part A comprises sections on long sword (Bloßechten),
wrestling (Ringen), dagger (Degen), and falchion (Meßer),
and consists of images provided with relevant comments. On the other hand,
part B-comprising the long sword Bloßechten, Harneschfechten
'armoured combat' with long swords, long swords together with shields,
lances and daggers, judicial shields and swords, judicial shields and maces,
unarmoured wrestling-consists of images only, without any comments or explanations.
This manual, as many other fighting manuals,
puts considerable streß on judicial duels, which is certified by several
elements typical for such kind of fighting. For example, No. 1 verso and
No. 2 recto,present
a remarkable scene of a duel on a fenced yard, with coffins already prepared
for both combatants; moreover (apart from such obvious elements like judicial
shields and maces), one's attention is drawn by the crosses on the garments
of combatants in part B.
The distribution of sections devoted to particular kinds of combat in
part A is very uneven: the most prominent place is held by unarmoured wresting
(No.15 recto-No.20 verso, and No.33 recto-No. 74 recto: 94 pages), followed
by unarmoured long sword combat (No.3 recto-No 14 verso, and No.21 recto-No.21
verso: 26 pages), unarmoured dagger combat (No. 22 recto-No.28 verso: 14
pages), and finally, unarmoured falchion combat (No. 29 recto-No. 32 verso:
8 pages). Apart from that, section A contains an image of a man-at-arms
(No. 1 recto), the scene of a judicial duel (No. 1 verso-No.2 recto), a
rather ridiculous piece of advice on how to kill a peasant with a knife
(No.74 verso), and the depiction of four persons in courtly costumes (No.
Although such presentation of the material is not a peculiarity of this
manuscript (another example could be Talhoffer's Fechtbuch aus dem Jahre
1467, where, for example, comments on long sword unarmoured combat
are divided into two sections),
the fact that sections on particular weapons are mixed with one another
to such extent makes the researcher wonder about the way in which the manuscript
was actually written. It could be tentatively suggested that the scribe
proceeded gradually, writing or copying particular sections as he had acceß
to relevant data, without caring about putting the material in a coherent
order. Moreover, the scribe of part A was in all probability not very familiar
with the Kunst des Fechtens. To support this point of view, one
can refer to No. 9 verso and No. 10 recto, when the scribe simply confused
the comments to two images with each other-at least, he realized his mistake
and provided the images with relevant explanations. On the other hand,
it could be supposed that the manuscript was first illustrated, and then
provided with comments; however, the fact that the scribe confused the
comments for two entirely different techniques speaks a lot about his knowledge
of the subject.
Of interest is the fact that in the first seven plates of the long sword
section (No. 3 recto-No. 6 recto) there are headings with general fighting
written just above the first line of the comments, and with a different
script, they are in all probability later additions.
The aim of this contribution is to present brief remarks on the long
sword section of part A of the manuscript: for the audience's convenience,
the relevant pages will be referred to from now on by single numerals,
without the use of recto-verso division. Thus, the numeration will be as
1 recto: plate 1,
1 verso: plate 2,
2 recto: plate 3,
2 verso: plate 4,
3 recto: plate 5,
3 verso: plate 6,
4 recto: plate 7,
4 verso: plate 8,
5 recto: plate 9,
5 verso: plate 10,
6 recto: plate 11,
6 verso: plate 12,
7 recto: plate 13,
7 verso: plate 14,
8 recto: plate 15,
8 verso: plate 16,
9 recto: plate 17,
9 verso: plate 18,
10 recto: plate 19,
10 verso: plate 20,
11 recto: plate 21,
11 verso: plate 22,
12 recto: plate 23,
12 verso: plate 24,
13 recto: plate 25,
13 verso: plate 26,
14 recto: plate 27,
14 verso: plate 28,
21 recto: plate 41
21 verso: plate 42.
3. The longswords in part A of Codex Wallerstein
With regard to the length of the long swords in section A, they seem to
vary considerably: from about 110-120 cm (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, 20, 24, 25,
26, and 41), through about 130-140 cm (plates 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, and 42) to about 150 cm (plates 9, 10, and
21), or even 160-180 cm (plates 1, 2, and 3); similarly, the lengths of
the hilts vary. However, this variety seems to have been caused rather
by the illuminator's style (it is a well-known fact that medieval artists
often did not pay much attention to issues of dimensions and proportion)
than by a conscious differentiation for the purpose of particular techniques.
What is important is the fact that all the long swords can be seen as belonging
to one type: ridged blades without fullers, with a diamond-shaped cross-sections,
and rigid, sharp points; fig-shaped pommels; simple straight cross-pieces
with chappes. According to the commonly accepted typology of Robert E.
Oakeshott, the blades could be classified as type XV or XVIII (the difference
consist in the fact that a blade type XV has a ridge flanked with deeply
hollowed faces, in the case of type XVIII the ridge rises from almost flat
faces): it does not seem possible to solve this issue by looking at the
images in the manuscript. Actually, one would rather opt for type XVIII,
as type XV (which dates back to the thirteenth century) is in the fifteenth
century accompanied by a short, one-handed grip. However, it may not be
that important, as both types of blades were so similar to each other in
the fifteenth century that it is sometimes hard to distinguish them from
As regards the cross-pieces, they belong clearly to type 1;
the pommels represent the T family and bear the strongest resemblance to
the T3 type (plates 1, 2, 3, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27,
28, 41, and 42).
A functional analysis of the swords presented in the manuscript is more
important: this shape of the blade was universal both for cutting and thrusting,
and the form of pommels allowed a comfortable operation with both hands-that
was especially relevant for the purpose of winding (e.g., plates 6 or 8),
and generally the techniques performedwith
crossed forearms (e.g., plates 7, 9, 10 or 13), as well as hitting with
the pommel (e.g., plates 22 or 25).
Of course, one could ask the question whether the codex illuminator
had a particular type of sword in front of his eyes when illustrating the
manuscript, or he was rather presenting in general the forms of sword commonly
used in his environment: the latter option is more probable. Moreover,
one should not assume that he was that much interested in depicting the
details of weapons which were surely well known to contemporary men. Therefore,
the above attempt at classifying the swords should be rather seen as a
search for analogies among the known examples of existing artifacts than
as a decisive definition of the weapon's typology.
4. General fighting principles
Like many other manuals, the Codex Wallerstein long sword section does
not cover all the aspects of swordsmanship,
for example, it has been rightly noticed that there is no mention about
On the contrary, it seems to focus on some selected problems, to mention
the most important ones, like:
Moreover, one is able to discern some fighting principles which were typical
for the "school" of swordsmanship based on Johannes Liechtenauer's teaching,
Binden an das Schwert (binding on the sword)
and possible actions from that (plates 5, 6, 7, to a degree plate 8, where
binding is not the point of departure, but one of consequent elements of
action; 9, 10 (a situation similar to 8), 11, 12, 13, to a degree also
plates 14, 15, 16, which are put as a sort of outcoming options from the
action presented in plate 13;moreover,
plates 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 41, 42). As one can see,
almost the entire section covers the problem of binding, which could suggest
that it was copied from a relevant part of another manual. Obviously, one
of most natural and recommended actions from Binden are Winden
(winding) techniques (of particular interest is that here they are mostly
performed with the short edge) which are presented on following plates
concerning Binden: 6, 7 (here winding is used not to hit the opponent
but to push his blade aside), 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 (referred to as Außerwinn
'Outerwinding'), 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 28.
Schwertsnehmen (taking the adversary's sword): in general, these
techniques result here either from binding (plates 22, 23, 25, 26, 27,
42) or from other actions, like supposedly a missed thrust (plate 17).
Gewappnete Hand (half-sword) techniques: resulting from binding,
these techniques occur either in form of Legen (placing the blade
at the adversary's neck), followed either by a slicing cut or a throw (plates
19, 20, 26) or Stoßen (thrusting) (plates 6, 21, 28).
Werffen(throwing or armlocks) techniques,
performed usually, although not always, with the help of the blade (plates
8, 11, 18, 19, 20, 27 and 41).
Leng and Masse (length and reach, referring to proper distance
and stance), as in plates 5 and 6.
With regard to the issue of guards, one can see several of these which
were used in the "school" of Liechtenauer, like Pflug (middle guard-it
is definitely the most common one in this section of the manuscript), depicted
on plates 5, 6, 22, 25, 26; moreover (not directly, but it was surely a
position of departure here) on plates 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20,
21, 23, 24, 28, 41; Hengort or Langort (hanging point or
long point) on plates 8, 14, 42; Ochs (hanging guard) on plates
9, 10, 11, 13, 27 (with a splendid example of hanging guard binding). The
issue of interest is definitely the stance of the scale (Waage),
known rather from wresting than swordfighting
on plates 5 and 12-on the other hand, one could assume that this principle
refers rather to a principle of balanced legs and body position.
Schwach/Sterck (weak/strong), like in plates 7 and 8.
issue of timing (Vor/Nach/Inndes-'before', 'after', 'simultaneously'),as
in plates9, 10, 11, 19 and 22.
Mention of Bloßn (openings)-plate 7.
überlauffen (overrunning, here presented as dringe in ihn
'run in him')-plate 9 and probably 10.
The question of interest, which has provoked a debate among the fencing
audience, is definitely the problem of edge-parrying.
Although the phrase versecz mit der kurczen sneid (deflect with
the short edge) appears in the section (plates 9, and 10), instead it should
beunderstood as deflecting done
on the opponent's flat performed with one's own edge, although one cannot
exclude an accidental edge-to-edge contact there.
5. Particular actions
Having dealt with selected general principles of swordsmanship, one has
to consider particular fighting actions individually. Both due to the scarcity
of space and on account of the fact that the author works at present on
the edition of Codex Wallerstein (Volume 1 should appear at the end of
this year), there would be no point in presenting the whole text of the
transcription. Instead of that, short comments based on the original text
are provided. As, due to copyright restrictions imposed by the source university, it was not possible to insert
the images into the present page, relevant images from the website of the Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts are accessible through registering for an online library security pass.
1 A presentation of the angles of cutting.
2 A scene of a judicial duel.
3 A scene of a judicial duel.
5 The length principle: swordsmen are advised to stretch their
arms and their swords far from them, and put themselves into a low body
position with knees bent, which should secure them with a long reach, and
the chance at efficiently responding to the necessities of combat.
6 The reach principle: having his sword bound by his adversary,
the swordsman on the left is advised to wind in his opponent's face with
his short edge, so that he could either hit him with the pommel or thrust
at him at the half-sword.
7 The 'weak' principle: binding his opponent on the sword, the
swordsman on the right is advised to check whether the adversary is "soft"
or "tough": if he is "tough", he should wind in his face as before; if
he is "soft", he should find the weak part of his sword, and wind it to
his left, so that he could hit his head or find the openings.
8 The 'strong' principle: the swordsman on the left strikes an
at his adversary: if the latter parries the stroke, the attacker is advised
to find the weak part of the defender's sword and bind it with his cross-piece,
so that he could place his short edge on his neck and throw him on the
9 The 'before' principle: binding his opponent, the swordsman on
the left must defend his head from his adversary: he is advised to deflect
the stroke with his short edge and rush in at the opponent to make him
strike again-if the adversary strikes from the other side, it should be
countered by putting the sword on his shoulder to his ear.
10 The 'after' principle: the swordsman on the left is being threatened
with his adversary's Oberhau: he is advised to deflect the stroke
with his short edge. If the opponent delivers another stroke, the swordsman
on the left should hit his sword with his short edge in order to bind his
adversary's sword and hit the back of his head.
11 The 'simultaneously' principle: if the opponent binds the swordsman
on the left on his sword and tries to wind in his face or perform another
action, the swordsman is advised to counter-wind simultaneously, hit his
arms strongly and push him back to throw him on the ground.
12 The swordsman on the left binds his adversary, who winds him
in his face: the swordsman on the left is advised to counter-wind and hold
his opponent's sword on his cross-piece to prevent him from passing in
front of his sword and doing any further action.
13 The swordsman on the right binds his adversary on the sword,
and the opponent tries to wind in his face: the swordsman on the right
is advised to counter-wind in order to push his opponent's sword up, and
then to deliver a twisted stroke (Verzuckter Schlag) in his elbow.
14 A continuation of plate 13: if the opponent parries the stroke,
the swordsman on the right is advised to hit his opponent's sword downwards
with his pommel and then to put his own short edge on the opponent's neck
in order to deliver a slicing cut.
15 A continuation of plate 13: it the opponent parries the stroke,
the swordsman on the right is advised to hold his sword on the adversary's
blade, and together with a step forwards with his right foot, to strike
at the opponent's left arm.
16 A continuation of plate 13: if the opponent parries the stroke,
the swordsman (now depicted on the left) is advised to hit with his left
hand in his adversary's arms, and, having stabbed with his sword between
himself and his opponent's sword, to place his blade on his adversary's
neck in order to break his arm and deliver a slicing cut against his neck.
17 If the sword of the swordsman on the left was grasped under
his adversary's left arm, who wants to deliver a stroke or a thrust, the
swordsman on theleft is advised to thrust forward with his sword and, having
grasped his own blade with his left hand, to apply an armlock in order
to break his opponent's arm.
18 A continuation of plate 16: if the adversary attempted hitting
the swordsman on the left in his elbow and the latter parried the stroke,
and then the opponent tries to stab between himself and the blade of the
swordsman on the left in order to hit his neck, the swordsman on the left
is advised to grasp the opponent's blade in his left hand and to put it
on his neck in order to throw him on the ground.
19 If the swordsman on the left is bound on the sword by his adversary,
he is advised to wind with his short edge in his face, and to go simultaneously
forward with his left foot, to hit the opponent's arms with his pommel,
and, having grasped his own blade with his left hand, to place it at the
adversary's neck in order to throw him on the ground.
20 The adversary binds the swordsman on the left on the sword and
winds him in his face: the swordsman on the left is advised to counter-wind
and hit the opponent's arms with his pommel as above, and then to place
his sword on his adversary's neck or head in order to throw him on the
21 If the opponent tries to wind the swordsman on the left in his
face, the latter is advised to grasp his blade with his left hand and to
thrust above his adversary's blade into his testicles.
22 If the swordsman on the left is bound on the sword by his opponent,
he is advised to wind with his short edge and rush simultaneously in him,
and then to grasp his hilt between his hands with his own left hand, and
to hit his face with the pommel in order to take his sword away.
23 If the swordsman on the left is bound on the sword by his adversary,
who wants to wind him in his face, the former is advised to grasp both
blades with his left hand, and to pull them towards his left; then, he
should go against his opponent's hand and hit from under through it, in
order to take his adversary's sword away.
24 The opponent binds the swordsman on the left on the sword, and
wants to wind or thrust at him; the swordsman on the left is advised to
counter-wind and, having placed his short edge on the opponent's sword,
to wind his adversary's blade powerfully so that he turns, in order to
hit his head.
25 If the swordsman on the left is bound on the sword by his adversary,
he is advised to hit his opponent's hilt with his right hand between his
adversary's hands, pull it towards himself,then
to push it aside with the cross-piece and to hit his opponent's face with
26 If the opponent binds the swordsman on the left on the sword
and wants to wind in his face, the latter is advised to raise his sword,
and to hit between his adversary's hands with his pommel, and, having grasped
his own blade with his left hand, to wind in his opponent's head.
27 If the swordsman on the left is bound on the sword by his adversary
in the hanging guards, he is advised to grasp the opponent's hilt with
his left hand above the right arm of his opponent, and then to pull
28 If the adversary binds the swordsman on the left on the sword,
the latter is advised to wind and hit the opponent from above with his
pommel; then, he should grasp his blade with his left hand, and treating
with his left foot behind his adversary, he is advised to deliver a slicing
cut to the opponent's neck and to stab him.
41 If the swordsman on the left is bound on the sword by his opponent,
he is advised to pretend as if he wanted to wind in his opponent's face;
then, he should hit his adversary's sword with his cross-piece, and letting
his own sword fall above his head, he should hit him from under in his
legs in order to throw him on the ground.
42 If the adversary binds the swordsman on the left on the sword,
the latter is advised to grasp both blades with his left hand and to go
with his pommel under his opponent's sword and to pull backwards in order
to take awayhis sword.
6. Analogies and similarities
On one hand, it is extremely tempting to search for analogies from other
fencing manuals in order to establish potential sources and a tentative
provenence of the manuscript; on the other hand, it is a truism to say
that writing was by no means a chief way of spreadingswordsmanship-on
the contrary, it was done by means of personal contacts with available
masters and their skills. Moreover, it is to be borne in mind that the
fact that similar or even identical actions are presented in two different
manuals does not necessarily mean that they are interrelated: it is a well-known
feature of the martial arts that different schools and systems may independently
find similar solutions to similar problems. However, in order to see these
similarities, an attempt at finding relevant fencing actions from some
other well-known manuals was undertaken. For the purpose of comparison,
the following manuals available to the author were applied: Das Solothurner
Fechtbuch, the famous manual by Fiore dei Liberi Flos Duellatorum,
as well as the Fechtbuch by Hans Talhoffer from 1467. With regard
to these manuals, the parallels are the following:
As it can be seen from the above comments, the Bloßechten section
in Codex Wallerstein bears several similarities to other swordsmanship
manuals, with special regard to that by Fiore dei Liberi;
however, it cannot be determined here whether it was caused by a direct
influence of this work, mutual contacts and analogies between German and
Italian swordsmanship, or by merely solving similar problems in a similar
plate 1: similar figure appears in dei Liberi (chart 17a, page 151),
demonstrating the angles of attack.
plate 8: one may search for analogies to Das Solothurner Fechtbuch,
plate 77, where the swordsman on the left seems to cut into his opponent's
neck with his short edge; however, in the case of this manual the matter
is aggravated by the fact that it was not provided with relevant comments
and one has to rely on the editor's interpretation.
plate 9: a similar action is presented in Das Solothurner Fechtbuch,
plate 16: a certain degree of similarity may be seen in dei Liberi
(chart 20b, page 158, bottom right), although in that case the point of
departure of this action is unknown; the same may be said about chart 22a,
page 161, top right.
plate 17: an obvious analogy is depicted in dei Liberi (chart 23b,
page 164, bottom right).
plate 19: similar action is presented in dei Liberi (chart 21a,
page 159, bottom right). Although with a different point of departure (binding
the swords in a low guard) and a different intention (to cut into the opponent's
face); moreover, the way of holding the opponent's sword is slightly different
(hooking the adversary's right arm). Moreover, there is an analogy to Talhoffer
(plate 24), although the comment there is not very informative.
plate 21: a similar thrust is depicted in Talhoffer (plate 36),
although with a different point of departure (hanging guard in its version
of squinting guard), and a different intention (thrusting into the adversary's
plate 22: the principle of grasping the opponent's sword and hitting
his face with the pommel appears in dei Liberi, although with different
way of grasping (catching the opponent's right arm, chart 22a, page 161,
bottom left; grasping the opponent's left arm from above, hitting between
the adversary's hands or grasping his pommel from under, chart 24a, page
165, top right, bottom left and right).
plate 26: similar action is depicted in dei Liberi (chart 21a, page
159, bottom right), although with differences mentioned for plate 19.
plate 27: a similar way of grasping the adversary's hilt above his
right arm is depicted in Das Solothurner Fechtbuch, plate 90). However,
this action is performed from middle guard.
plate 41: a throw of the adversary while holding his legs is depicted
in Talhoffer (plate 34), although with a different point of departure (as
a defense against a stroke).
Suggestions for further research
The first postulate from the remarks presented in this contribution is
surely the publication of Codex Wallerstein-the author works at present
on a critical edition of this manuscript, whose first volume should appear
at the end of 2001.
Furthermore, it is of high interest to search for analogies to other
fencing manuals of that period, which would not only bring answers to the
questions related directly to this manuscript, but would deepen in general
the knowledge of medieval swordsmanship. With regard to the very manuscript,
one should attempt to determine the existence of any governing principles
common for various parts of it (the presence of Waage position both
in section on long sword and wrestling was already mentioned), which would
potentially connect them into a coherent fighting system.
Finally, a practical analysis of particular fighting actions should
be carried out in order to check their real applicability for the purposes
of combat-to a degree, such analysis was carried out by the author (here
he would like to expreß his gratefulneß to his friends Bartłomiej Walczak
and Rußell Mitchell for their cooperation and valuable comments), but
it surely did not fully explore all of their possible implications.
- Anglo, Sydney. The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe. New Haven and London: Yale University Preß, 2000.
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- Das Solothurner Fechtbuch (1423). Edited by Charles Studer. Solothurn: Vogt-Schild AG. Available on the webpage of the Historical Armed Combatassociation (http://www.thehaca.com/pdf/Solothurner.htm)
- dei Liberi da Premariacco, Fiore. Flos duellatorum in armis, sine armis, equester, pedester. Edited by Franceso Novati. Bergamo: Instituto Italiano d'Arti Grafiche, 1902. Also available on the webpage of The Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts (http://www.aemma.org/liberi.htm); and The Historical Armed Combat association (http://www.thehaca.com/pdf/Liberi.htm)
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- Houston, Mary G. Medieval Costume in England and France: the 13th, 14th, and 15th Centuries. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1996.
- Oakeshott, Robert E. The Archaeology of Weapons. Boydell Preß, 1964.
- Talhoffer, Hans.Fechtbuch aus dem Jahre 1467. Edited by Gustav Hergsell. Prague: J.G. Calve'sche K.K. Hof-und Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Ottomar Beyer, 1887. Available on the webpage of The Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts (http://www.aemma.org/library.htm); and The Historical Armed Combat association (http://www.thehaca.com/pdf/Talhoffer1443-1459Editions.htm).
- Talhoffer, Hans. Fechtbuch aus dem Jahre 1443. Edited by Gustav Hergsell. Prague: Selbstverlag, 1889. Available on the webpage of The Historical Armed Combat association (http://www.thehaca.com/pdf/Talhoffer1443-1459Editions.htm).
- Talhoffer, Hans. Fechtbuch aus dem Jahre 1459. Edited by Gustav Hergsell. Prague: Selbstverlag, 1889. Available on the webpage of The Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts (http://www.aemma.org/library.htm); and The Historical Armed Combat association (http://www.thehaca.com/pdf/Talhoffer1443-1459Editions.htm).
- Talhoffer, Hans. Medieval Combat: A Fifteenth Century Illustrated Manual of Swordfighting and Close-Quarter Combat. Translated and Edited by Mark Rector. London: Greenhill Books, 2000. Available onthe webpage of The Historical Armed Combat association (http://www.thehaca.com/talhoffer.htm)
- Wierschin, Martin. Meister Johann Liechtenauers Kunst des Fechtens. Münchener Texte und Untersuchungen zur Deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters. Kommission für Deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 13. C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, München 1965.
For example, see Hans Talhoffer, Fechtbuch aus dem Jahre 1467. Edited
by Gustav Hergsell (Prague: J.G. Calve'sche K.K. Hof-und Universitäts-Buchhandlung,
Ottomar Beyer, 1887). A modern English edition which is used here: Medieval
Combat: A Fifteenth Century Illustrated Manual of Swordfighting and Close-Quarter
Combat. Translated and Edited by Mark Rector (London: Greenhill Books,
2000); Judicial duels are also dealt with in other manuals of Talhoffer:
aus dem Jahre 1443.Edited
by Gustav Hergsell (Prague: Selbstverlag, 1889), and Fechtbuch aus dem
Jahre 1459. Edited
by Gustav Hergsell (Prague: Selbstverlag, 1889). A splendid example of
such manual is Das Solothurner Fechtbuch (1423). Edited by Charles
Studer (Solothurn: Vogt-Schild AG).
Journal of Western Martial Art
About the author: , who currently resides in Hungary, is a historian of the Middle
Ages, with special reference to social and economic issues and military
history, enthusiast and practicioner of medieval martial arts. He is currently
working on a Ph.D. project concerning a functional analysis of sixteenth
century comments to the teachings of Johannes Liechtenauer.