Journal of Combative Sport, Nov 2007
 

Death under the Spotlight: The Manuel Velasquez Boxing Fatality Collection
The Data


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Death under the Spotlight: The Data


By Joseph R. Svinth
Copyright © EJMAS 2000-2007. All rights reserved.
First posted: July 2000. Latest update: November 2007

 

Introduction

This series of tabulations supports my article, “Death under the Spotlight: The Manuel Velazquez Boxing Fatality Collection.” If your search engine brought you here directly, please refer to the main article itself, located at http://ejmas.com/jcs/jcsart_svinth_a_0700.htm, for background and statistical analysis.


You are welcome to print these tables for private use, but please be aware that a printed version of the complete document may run more than a hundred pages in length. Check formatting, too – you will want landscape rather than portrait.



 
Reporting Errors and Providing Additional Information

Names may be misspelled, or the date may reflect the date of death rather than the date of the fatal event. If you find errors, have photographs or additional information to share, or simply want a copy of the most current Excel spreadsheet, please contact me at jsvinth@ejmas.com


 
Key

Deaths are sorted by type (professional, amateur, Toughman, training, or before 1890), and then by year. To search alphabetically, use the CTRL-F search function of your browser.


SURVIVOR: When known, birth names appear first, followed by ring name in parentheses (like this).

DAY/MO/YEAR: These fields show the date of the fatal event.

RES: The result of the fight. Although the default is knockout (KO), the actual outcome may have been different unless a round (RD) is also listed.

DECEASED: When known, birth names appear first, followed by ring name in parentheses (like this).

AGE: This refers to the age of the deceased.

COUNTY/STATE: This column lists English counties, US and Australian states, and Canadian provinces.

SOURCES/REMARKS: Most of the newspaper citations listed here can be viewed online, generally on a pay-per-view basis. Some newspapers can be searched directly; see, for example, Brooklyn Daily Eagle and The New York Times. Others (mostly American) can be found online at NewspaperArchive.com. Many out-of-copyright texts listed here can be viewed online using Google Book Search or Microsoft Live Search. For access to back issues of boxing magazines, consider visiting the Winkler Collection at Notre Dame University. To find career summaries of professional boxers listed here, try Boxrec.com. For photos of professional boxers, sources include http://www.antekprizering.com/photoarchive.html, Corbis, and http://www.picturehistory.com.




Table 1: Ring deaths before 1890


Survivor

Day/Mo

Year

Res

Rd

Deceased

Age

Town

County/State

Country

Weight

Sources/Remarks

William Emerson

ND

1732

KO


Andrew Reed


Great Yarmouth

Norfolk

England

ND

Charles John Palmer, The Perlustration of Great Yarmouth,with Goreston and Southtown, (Great Yarmouth: George Nall, 1872), 89. This probably is not the first boxing death in England. For example, a John Smith reportedly died of blows in 1730 and in July 1736, the Northampton Mercury reported two anonymous deaths due to blows. In those days, the English associated boxing with butchers' guilds and Maisters of Defence, and contests often took place at fairs.

John "Jack" Broughton

24-Apr

1741

KO

3

George Stevenson


London

London

England

Heavy

Henry Downes Miles, Pugilistica: The History of British Boxing..., (London: J. Grant, 1906), 23; Bob Mee, Bare Fists: The History of Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting (Woodstock, New York: Overlook Press, 2001), 13-17. The fight probably took place at Broughton's booth in Hanway Street. The bout lasted about 35-40 minutes, and it ended with Broughton pinning Stevenson against a ring stake and then hitting him hard above the heart. The blows broke several ribs, and Stevenson died of injuries the following month. The death is commemorated in Paul Whitehead's mock-heroic poem entitled The Gymnasiad, or Boxing Match. "Down dropp'd the Hero [Stevenson], welt'ring in his Gore," said Whitehead, "And his stretch'd Limbs lay quiv'ring on the Floor." Stevenson's death also directly contributed to the introduction of Broughton's Rules in 1743, which became one of the fundamental bases of modern international boxing. Summarized, Broughton's Rules prohibited hitting below the waist or after the opponent was down, introduced rounds and rest periods, and designated the starting mark as "a square of a yard chalked in the middle of a stage." Broughton also introduced "mufflers," meaning leather gloves padded with several ounces of horsehair or lamb's wool, to pugilism. Here, the motivation was Broughton's establishment of a boxing school for wealthy amateurs. (An advertisement in the Daily Advertiser for February 1, 1747 claimed that gloves would "effectually secure [students] from the inconveniency of black eyes, broken jaws, and bloody noses.") Weight classes also developed during this period. This innovation came from cockfighting and horseracing, and was intended to simplify the problems of setting odds for fights between men of mismatched size and weight.

Thomas Faulkner

5-Aug

1758

KO


George Taylor


St. Albans

Hertfordshire

England

Heavy

Bob Mee, Bare Fists: The History of Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting (Woodstock, New York: Overlook Press, 2001), 20; H.B. Wheatley, Hogarth's London, Pictures of the Manners of the Eighteenth Century (London: Constable and Company Ltd., 1909), 149. Taylor, who was blind in one eye prior to the fight, lost sight in his good eye during the fight, and he died of injuries in December 1758.

John "Jack" Warren

9-Apr

1765

KO


Phillip Juchau


Moorfields

London

England

Heavy

Pierce Egan, Boxiana, London, 1812, 79; Pancratia, or a History of Pugilism, London, Hildyard, 1812, 56; Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 265; Mee, 2001, 24; London Encyclopaedia, edited by Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert (Bethesda, Maryland: Adler & Adler, 1986), 526. Juchau was thrown by a cross-buttock. He struck his head on a paving stone, and he died.

William Tower

22-Nov

1784

KO


Bill Day


Barnet

London

England

ND

Pierce Egan, Boxiana, London, 1812, 488-489; Pancratia, or a History of Pugilism, London, Hildyard, 1812, 68-69. Day was dancing about, said Egan, "till at length TOWERS caught him in one corner of the stage, and held him fast by one hand, while with the other he nearly annihilated DAY." The bout lasted 33 minutes, and Day died shortly afterward of his injuries.

Thomas Tyne

6-Aug

1788

KO


George Earl


Brighton

East Sussex

England

Heavy

Pancratia, or a History of Pugilism, London, Hildyard, 1812, 81; Leslie A. Marchand, Lord Byron: Letters and Journals, volume 3, "Alas the Love of Women" (London: John Murray, 1974), 133. Struck a solid blow against the temple, Earl fell back and struck his head against a solid rail. The Prince of Wales was present at the bout, and to avoid further scandal, he awarded an annuity to Earl's widow and children.

William Ward (Bill Warr)

5-May

1789

KO


Edwin Swaine


Enfield

London

England

Heavy

Pierce Egan, Boxiana, London, 1812, 118; “William Ward, a boxer, convicted of manslaughter for killing his opponent," http://www.exclassics.com/newgate/ng370.htm; Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org), "William Ward, Killing: Murder, 3rd June, 1789," Ref: t17890603-17. Swaine was a blacksmith who challenged Ward, a professional, to a fight, for a prize of a guinea. Swaine took Ward by the hair, and began punching him in the face. They then went to the ground, and the first round ended. They got back up, and Ward began striking back. Swaine said he wanted to stop, and began walking away. Ward followed Swaine, and struck him again, once in the stomach and a second time to the head. Swaine went down, and was dead on the spot. The surgeon did not do an autopsy, but said that the cause of death was a blow to the temple. Ward was arrested, convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced to three months imprisonment, plus a one-shilling fine. An artist's depiction of the mill appears in Andrew Knapp and William Baldwin, The Newgate Calendar, vol. 3 (London: J. Robins and Co., 1825), 145.

Thomas Kniblett

12-Mar

1798

KO


William Turner


Mile-End

London

England

ND

London Times, July 7, 1798. This was a grudge match that was fought as a prizefight. Turner was thrown with a cross-buttock. He struck his head on a rock, and he died soon after. Kniblett was convicted of manslaughter.

ND

14-May

1800

KO


Collins


Newington

London

England

ND

Anonymous, Sporting Magazine, v. 16 (Apr.-Sept. 1800), London, Rogerson & Tuxford, 1800, p. 89. Collins was a construction worker, and his opponent was an Irish fisherman. The two men had a dispute, so they decided to settle it with a prizefight at noon. The bout took place outside the Elephant and Castle, and it lasted 1 hour, 20 minutes. Finally, Collins was struck on the jugular and he died almost instantly. The Irishman died soon after.

Collins

14-May

1800

WKO


ND


Newington

London

England

ND

Anonymous, Sporting Magazine, v. 16 (Apr.-Sept. 1800), London, Rogerson & Tuxford, 1800, p. 89. Collins was a construction worker, and his opponent was an Irish fisherman. The two men had a dispute, so they decided to settle it with a prizefight at noon. The bout took place outside the Elephant and Castle, and it lasted 1 hour, 20 minutes. Finally, Collins was struck on the jugular and he died almost instantly. The Irishman died soon after.

S. Houghton

20-Oct

1801

KO


B. Dickenson


Great Ponton

Lincolnshire

England

ND

Edinburgh Advertiser, November 13, 1801. Houghton was a horse breaker, and Dickinson was a tailor. This was probably a grudge match fought under prize ring rules, as Houghton was said to be about 70 years of age.

James Ayres

30-Jun

1809

KO

13

William Dormer


Hackney

London

England

ND

Bob Mee, Bare Fists: The History of Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting (Woodstock, New York: Overlook Press, 2001), 76. Struck below the left ear, Dormer fell down. He stood up, and then collapsed. Ayres and his second were convicted of manslaughter and branded on the arm.

Haynes

11-Dec

1809

KO


Holmes


Sallowfield

Hampshire

England

ND

Edinburgh Annual Register for 1809, Vol. 2 (London: James Ballantyne and Co., 1811), 311-312. Holmes was knocked down by a blow below the right ear, and he did not get up.

Stringer Tonk

16-Dec

1810

KO

31

Charles Beale


Rollestone

Wiltshire

England

ND

Plattsburgh (New York) Republican, May 31, 1811, cited at http://esf.uvm.edu/vtbox/Historical.html. Although fought for a purse, this was also a grudge match.

ND

12-Dec

1812

KO


White


Wickwar

South Gloucestershire

England

ND

The Sporting Magazine, Volume 39, 1812, p. 242. The wager was 3s, and the fight lasted about an hour. White walked home after the fight, a distance of about three miles, and that night, he became unconscious. He died the following Saturday. Cause of death was a burst blood vessel in the brain.

Edward "Ned" Turner

22-Oct

1816

KO

68

John "Jack" Curtis


Moulsey Hurst

Surrey

England

ND

Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org), "Edward Turner: Killing: Murder, 30th October, 1816," Ref: t18161030-8; Edinburgh Advertiser, November 5, 1816; London Times, November 1, 1816; Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 248; Henry Ripley, The History and Topography of Hampton-on-Thames, London: Wyman and Sons, 1884, 115. The mill lasted 1 hour, 28 minutes. At the conclusion, Curtis was knocked out. After getting up, he started vomiting, so he was taken to a nearby inn. Surgeons were called, and he was bled, but he died nonetheless. After two minutes deliberation, the jury convicted Turner of manslaughter. The sentence was three months imprisonment and a one-shilling fine.

William Batts

28-Apr

1817

KO

27

Thomas Clayton


Oxford

Oxfordshire

England

ND

Personal correspondence with Ollie Batts (a descendent). The location of the mill was either Radley Common, or a riverside meadow on the Berkshire bank of the Thames, and the purse was 20 guineas. After being knocked out by a blow to the side of the head, Clayton was taken to King's Arms Public House in Sandford, where he died at about 7 p.m. Batts was arrested, convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced to six months imprisonment. See also Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, May 1817, where the pugilists are described as Clayton and Whitney.

Charles "Pug" McKay (or McGee)

15-Jun

1819

KO


Samuel Eades


Birmingham (Rotten Park)

West Midlands

England

ND

London Times, June 28, 1819; Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 226. Said the London Times: "After fighting nearly 40 minutes, the latter had received so much injury that he died."

Dogherty

Dec/

1820

KO

45

Michael White


Bristol

Bristol

England

ND

The Cottager's Monthly Visitor, Volume 1, London: F.C. & J. Rivington, 1821. The two men had a quarrel that they decided to settle with a prize fight. The bout took place on a Tuesday, and lasted one hour, ten minutes. White was carried home, and died about 6 p.m.

Edward "Ned" Horner

16-Jul

1821

KO


John Wilson

24

London

London

England

ND

Edinburgh Advertiser, October 19, 1821. The men had a quarrel that they decided to settle as a prizefight, with side bets and a purse. The bout took place on a Sunday morning, near Milbank Penitentiary.

Jack Cooper (Slashing Gypsy)

7-Aug

1821

KO

38

Dan O'Leary


Epsom (Walton Down)

Surrey

England

Welter

Edinburgh Advertiser, September 14, 1821; Edinburgh Advertiser, September 18, 1821; Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 217. O'Leary was hit several times under his ear, and went down. He was carried off the field, and soon died. Cooper was found guilty of manslaughter, and sentenced to six months imprisonment.

Daniel Watts

4-Apr

1823

KO


Jim Smith


Brighton

East Sussex

England

ND

Henry Downes Miles, Pugilistica: The History of British Boxing (London, J. Grant, 1906), 17. Cause of death was attributed to congestion of the brain. Around this time, pugilism began falling out of favor with the British aristocracy. One reason was a scandal over betting that caused the retirement of Gentleman John Jackson, a man widely viewed as an honest broker. Another was the well-publicized trial and execution of a homicidal boxing promoter named John Thurtell. And a third was the spread of middle-class Christian evangelicalism. To the Christian reformers, pugilism gave crude pleasure to the rich and the working classes. Moreover, it was associated with homoeroticism, which was an even graver sin. (During the Regency, heroic nudity had been an artistic vogue, and Thomas Bruce, Earl of Elgin, was notorious for paying pugilists to pose nude amidst his Greek marbles.) Thus, new laws were passed -- and more importantly, enforced. The first major fight to be stopped under the new anti-prizefight laws was one between Ned Neale and Jem Burns in 1824. Going to America was one of the ways that fighters avoided such strictures, and in July 1823, the New York Evening Post described a bout between an 18-year old butcher and "a man they called the champion of Hickory Street." The stakes in the latter fight were $200, an amount roughly equal to a working man’s annual income. Better known were the battles between Ned Hammond of Dublin and George Kensett of Liverpool in 1824 and 1826. Such battles had strong ethnic overtones, and the practice of tying gang colors to the ropes dates to this era. At the same time, journalists such as Pierce Egan, author of Boxiana, or Sketches of Ancient and Modern Pugilism, began promoting the heroics of the old days, and newspapers such as the New York Herald began routinely reporting prizefights. Other, less famous, popular boxing texts of 1820s and 1830s included William Sharples's The Complete Art of Boxing (1829), Samuel O’Rourke’s The Art of Pugilism (1837), and Owen Swift’s Hand-Book to Boxing (1840). The American edition of the latter book was called Boxing without a Master.

John Hargreaves

30-May

1823

KO


Ralph Croft


Kirby Lonsdale

Cumbria

England

ND

London Times, August 14, 1823. This was a grudge match fought as a prize fight. Croft was struck below the left ear. He fell, and died three days later without regaining consciousness. Death was due to bleeding in the brain. Hargreaves was convicted of manslaughter.

James Bostick

9-Jul

1824

KO


Thomas Smith


Islington (Copenhagen Fields)

London

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 239.

Ned Brown

9-Nov

1824

KO

21

Harry Scott


Colnbrook

Berkshire

England

Bantam

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 134. Scott stood up at the start of the twentieth round, then collapsed.

Miller

3-Jan

1825

KO


Ezra Coizer


Cheltenham

Gloucestershire

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 211.

Jack Ford

26-Feb

1825

KO


Joseph Ebbs


Rickmansworth

Hertfordshire

England

ND

London Times, March 4, 1826; Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 161, 168. This was a grudge match fought as a prizefight, for five shillings a side. Ford did much headbutting throughout the fight. Ebbs died of ruptured blood vessels in the brain. Ford was convicted of manslaughter.

George Alexander Wood

28-Feb

1825

KO

60

F. Ashley Cooper

14

Eton

Berkshire

England

ND

Edinburgh (Scotland) Advertiser, March 8, 1825; Edinburgh (Scotland) Advertiser, March 11, 1825; The Cottager's Monthly Visitor, vol. 5 (London: C. & J. Rivington, 1825), 179; Andrew Knapp and William Baldwin, The Newgate Calendar, vol. 3 (London: J. Robins and Co., 1825), 394-396; William Pitt Lennox, Celebrities I Have Known (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1876), 52; (Bristol, Pennsylvania) Bucks County Gazette, July 21, 1892; Newgate Calendar, http://www.exclassics.com/newgate/ng595.htm. Cooper was the fifth son of the Earl of Shaftsbury. Meanwhile, Wood, who was aged about 16 years, was the son of an army colonel and the nephew of Charles Stewart, 3rd Marquis of Londonderry. Wood and Cooper had an argument about seating, and they agreed to settle it using prize ring rules. After boxing for about two hours, Cooper was knocked down by a blow to the temple, and he did not get up. His friend James Morrell carried him to his bed. A servant looked in on him every hour, and after about four hours, the surgeon was called. By the time the doctor arrived, Cooper was dead. The coroner's jury found for manslaughter. The criminal case was tried March 9, 1825. Cooper's family refused to allow his brothers, who had served as his seconds in the match, to testify against Wood. Consequently, since there were no witnesses to the contrary, a verdict of not guilty was returned.

Joseph Parker

16-Jun

1825

KO


John Stone


Chalkfarm

London

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 220.

Al Henderson

28-Nov

1825

KO


Jerry Halton (Runner)


Hungerford

Berkshire

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 178. The fight lasted two hours.

Joe Hayes

Mar/

1826

KO


Pat Driscoll


Eel Pie Island

London

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 159.

Hawkeswell (Coachman)

25-Oct

1826

KO


Buxton


Kingston

West Sussex

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 181. The bout lasted 60 minutes.

Albert Frankhorn

15-May

1827

KO

43

Al Seeley


Bath (Lansdown)

Somerset

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 168.

Jack Yates

21-May

1827

KO

90

Bob Clough


Eccles

Greater Manchester

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 144.

Samuel Beard

1-Oct

1827

KO


John Kemp Crow


Westminster (Old Oak Common)

London

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 126; London Times, October 31, 1827; Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org), "Samuel Beard, Alexander Reed, Michael Kirton, Patrick Flinn: killing : murder, 25th October, 1827," Ref: t18271025-89. This was a grudge match fought by prize-ring rules. The fight lasted about half an hour, and during the fight, several of Crow's ribs were broken. One of the rib fragments punctured Crow's spleen, and he died of the internal injury. Beard and the seconds were convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced to serve seven to fourteen days.

William Davis

26-Jul

1829

KO

55

Thomas Winkworth


Hampstead

London

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 154, 255; Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org), "William Davis, Patrick Flynn, Michael Driscoll, killing : manslaughter, 10th September, 1829," Ref: t18290910-51. This was a grudge match fought according to prize-ring rules. The fight lasted about an hour and a quarter, and for the last half hour, Davis was clearly leading. Winkworth was heard to say, "So help me God, I am not able to fight any longer," but his seconds kept pushing him to the mark. He was knocked down again and again, and finally the fight was stopped. Cause of death was bleeding on the right side of the brain. Davis and the seconds were convicted of manslaughter. Davis was confined for a year, and the seconds were transported for life.

Simon Byrne

2-Jun

1830

KO

47

Alexander "Sandy" McKay

26

Salcey Forest

Northhamptonshire

England

Heavy

London Times, July 24, 1830; John Johnstone, The Schoolmaster and Edinburgh Weekly Magazine, v. 1-2 (1832-1833) (Edinburgh: John Anderson, 1833), 97. "Match between Simon Byrne and Sandy M'Kay, Oriental Sporting Magazine: From June 1828 to June 1833, Vol. II (London: Henry S. King & Co., 1873), 44-45; Henry Downes Miles, Pugilistica: The History of British Boxing, (London, J. Grant, 1906), 226; Peter Radford, The Celebrated Captain Barclay: Sport, Money and Fame in Regency Britain (London: Headline, 2001), 255-264; "The fight at Salcey Green," http://www.mkheritage.co.uk/hdhs/fight.html; "The death of Simon Byrne, the pugilist," National Gazette and Literary Register," August 1, 1833, No. 1928, XII, at http://www.boxinggyms.com/news/simon/death_simon1.htm; "Broadside entitled 'S. Byrne &c.'," National Library of Scotland, http://www.nls.uk/broadsides/broadside.cfm/id/15559/transcript/1; "Broadside entitled 'MacKay poisoned!" http://www.nls.uk/broadsides/broadside.cfm/id/14570, "Simon Byrne," Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Giano/Sand_box_2. McKay was a strongman rather than a pugilist, and despite the billing that this was a championship bout, it was only McKay's fourth prizefight. (He had two wins over an Irish boxer, Paul Spencer, and a loss to Simon Byrne 2-1/2 years earlier.) The blow that ended the fight was a left to the throat that didn't seem to anyone to be that powerful. Nonetheless, McKay was carried to his corner. When he regained consciousness, he complained of severe headache. The surgeon bled him and gave him laudanum, but he died nonetheless. Cause of death was listed as "considerable effusion of blood, three or four tablespoons full," on the left side of the brain. In other words, he had an acute left subdural hematoma. At the subsequent manslaughter trial, witnesses were found to say that McKay had struck his head while falling on some stones several hours before the fight, and so no convictions were obtained.

Isaacs

23-Aug

1831

KO


Samuel Gilpin


Newscastle

Staffordshire

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 173.

Richard Dodd

Aug/

1831

KO


James Cox

25

Isle of Dogs

London

England

ND

London Times, September 1, 1831. Dodd was charged with manslaughter, but released; he died in a separate fight with James Hargrave in December 1831.

James Hargrave

8-Dec

1831

KO


Richard Dodd


Isle of Dogs

London

England

ND

R. v. Hargrave, 1831, 5 C&P 170, King's Bench, "Reports of Cases Argued and Ruled at Nisi Prius..." (London: W. McDowall, 1833), 170-171; see also Charles F. Williams and David S. Garland, American and English Encyclopaedia of Law, Vol. 28 (Northport, New York: Edward Thompson Co., 1895), 203. The fight started at Islington (then part of Middlesex), but the police interfered. The fighters then moved to the Isle of Dogs (Kent), where they resumed the mill. Dodd lost, and and he died soon after in hospital. The court's ruling was that if the fatal blow occurred in one county, but death occurred in another, then the county in which the blow was struck had jurisdiction. Hargrave was convicted, and sentenced to fourteen years' transportation.

James Barber

26-Feb

1833

KO

44

James Startin


Walsall

West Midlands

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 241.

Charles Jackson

26-Apr

1833

KO

29

Edward Bower


Sheffield (Shiregreen)

South Yorkshire

England

ND

London Times, April 29, 1833; (Glasgow) Scotsman, May 11, 1833. Bower was carried to his home, where he died within a few hours. Jackson and the seconds were charged with manslaughter.

James Burke (Deaf 'Un)

30-May

1833

KO

99

Simon Byrne

32

St. Albans

Hertfordshire

England

Heavy

(Glasgow) Scotsman, July 24, 1833; John Epps, Consumption (London: Sanderson, 1859), 103; Henry Downes Miles, Pugilistica: The History of British Boxing (London, J. Grant, 1906), 126; John Gilbert Bohun Lynch, Knuckles and Gloves (London: W. Collins Sons, 1922), 80-83. Byrne had gained a lot of weight over the past few years, so during his training for this fight, he lost about 25 pounds. By the 43rd round, both men were clearly exhausted, but the seconds and the referee kept pushing them to their marks, as they had their bets to consider. Finally, by the 99th round, Byrne's hands were too damaged to go on, and the fight was stopped. Two days later, Byrne died. The official cause of death was congestion of blood on the left side of the brain. The scandal surrounding the seconds pushing exhausted fighters to their mark contributed to the development of London Prize Ring Rules, which, among other things, prohibited seconds from carrying a nearly unconscious man to the mark. Meanwhile, although Burke avoided prison, he was unable to get another fight in England. Therefore, in 1836, he went to the USA, where he fought in both New York and New Orleans

Welsh Ned

12-Jun

1833

KO


Samuel Oakey


Cheltenham

Gloucestershire

England

ND

London Times, June 18, 1833. The two men had quarreled, and agreed to a prize fight to resolve their differences. The bout lasted about three-quarters of an hour. Oakey was carried unconscious from the field, and died three days later. Welsh Ned fled, and the coroner's jury charged him with manslaughter.

Michael Murphy

2-Jul

1833

KO


Edward "Ned" Thompson (Paddington Pet)


Friern Barnet

London

England

ND

London Times, July 13, 1833; Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 211; Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org), "Edward Murphy, killing: murder, 28th November, 1833," Ref: t18331128-45; Jack Anderson, "Pugilistic prosecutions: Prize fighting and the courts in nineteenth century Britain," The Sports Historian, November 2001, http://www.umist.ac.uk/sport/SPORTS%20HISTORY/BSSH/The%20Sports%20Historian/TSH%2021-2/Art3-Anderson.htm. Thompson died of concussion of the brain, but his being bled of four pints (two liters) of blood probably didn't help. A faction fight, complete with bludgeons, had broken out during the middle of the bout, and this led to Murphy and his seconds being charged with death during riotous assembly. The case law is R. v. Murphy, 6 C&P 103. Murphy was sent to prison, where he soon died, but the true importance of this case is that in it, the court determined that seconds could be charged with aiding and abetting manslaughter.

Hackney Bill

30-Oct

1833

KO

69

John Brown (Northampton Baker)


Kingston upon Hull

Yorkshire

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 135. Brown died that night, and Hackney left England for Holland. The jury returned a verdict of murder.

Owen Swift

24-Jun

1834

KO

74

Anthony Noon


Andover

Hampshire

England

Feather

Eau Claire (Wisconsin) Argus, July 24, 1879. Swift served six months for manslaughter.

James Dukes

20-Apr

1835

KO

13

Bob Skinner


Birmingham (Sutton Coldfield)

West Midlands

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 159, 238.

Austin

4-May

1835

KO


Lupton


Mapperley Plains

Nottinghamshire

England

ND

John Frost Sutton, The Date-Book of Remarkable & Memorable Events connected with Nottingham... (Nottingham: H. Field, 1880), 449. The two men were competing for the attentions of a young woman. They decided to settle the matter according to prize ring rules. They fought for about two hours. Lupton was knocked out, and died soon after.

George Gaudry

24-Aug

1835

KO


James "Stringy-bark" Bishop


Windsor

Berkshire

Australia

ND

R. v. Gaudry and others [1836], NSWSupC 70, 10 November 1836 Sydney (Australia) Gazette, November 12, 1836. The bet was £10, and the fight lasted about an hour. Gaudry threw Bishop several times, and finally Bishop stayed down. The surgeon bled Bishop, and then he was taken to a nearby pub, where he died. Cause of death was listed as compression of the brain, occasioned by a profusion of blood on the brain. The mechanism was attributed to the falls rather than the blows. The survivor, seconds, and bottle holders were convicted of prizefighting, and sentenced to prison sentences ranging from three months to two years.

Owen Swift

19-Dec

1837

KO

85

William Phelps (Brighton Bill)

20

Royston (Melbourne Heath)

Hertfordshire

England

Feather

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 222; London Times, March 20, 1838; (Glasgow) Scotsman, March 24, 1838; Edmond Burke, The Annual Register, v. 80 (London: Rivingtons, 1839), 40-41; Eau Claire (Wisconsin) Argus, July 24, 1879; Alfred Kingston, Fragments of Two Centuries: Glimpses of Country Life when George III was King (Royson: Warren Brothers, 1893); "Famous pupils -- William Phelps -- Brighton Bill," http://www.middlestreet.org/mshistory/brightonbill.htm. The fight was well-planned (it took place at the border of three counties, but on a main road), lasted about 1-1/2 hours, and throughout, no one called "shame." Phelps collapsed after the fight. Cause of death was given as brain hemorrhage, primarily on the left side, and a punctured left lung. Swift was charged with manslaughter, but acquitted. Nonetheless, the scandal following this death led to the Pugilistic Club of London replacing Broughton's Rules with London Prize Ring Rules. The new rules introduced a 24-foot square roped ring, eliminated seizing below the waist, and prohibited seconds from pushing a a semi-conscious fighter to his mark.

Robert Forbister

22-May

1838

KO

37

John Brown


Ryton (Hedley Common)

Durham

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 135, 167; Thomas Fordyce, John Sykes, Local Records: or, Historical Register of Remarkable Events… (Newcastle upon Tyne: T. Fordyce, 1867), 91. The bout lasted 1 hour, 25 minutes. The local clergyman refused to allow Brown to be buried in the churchyard, and Rorbister was sentenced to four months at hard labor.

George Terry

Feb/

1839

KO

33

Edward "Ned" Marshall (Screw)

28

Tipton

Staffordshire

England

ND

Editors of Bell's Life, Fistiana: Or, The Oracle of the Ring, London, 1841, 205, 245; London Times, March 9, 1839. Marshall fell or was knocked down. The witnesses said he must have struck his head on a stone. Anyway, he died of brain injury. The coroner's jury ruled it was manslaughter.

Cain

7-Jan

1840

ND

6

Richard Cricknell


Norwich

Norfolk

England

ND

Charles Mackie, Norfolk Annals, Vol. I (Norwich: Norfolk Chronicle, 1901), 391, 415.The police stopped the bout in the sixth round, but on February 5, 1842, Cricknell died. Said the Norfolk paper: 'He had never been well since he fought with Cain (on January 7th, 1840, q.v.); the injury which he received to his head deprived him of his reason, and he had since been in the Bethel.'"

Robert Middleton

7-Jul

1840

KO

61

Henry Isaac Cutts


Bollingford

London

England

ND

London Times, August 22, 1840. This was a grudge match, fought as a prize fight. Middleton was convicted of manslaughter.

Presdee

18-Sep

1840

KO

23

Thomas Barkes

25

St. Pancras

London

England

ND

London Times, September 30, 1840. Cause of death was bleeding in the brain. The coroner's jury ruled death by misadventure.

Harry Bell

12-Apr

1841

KO

5

Henry Marshall

21

Stonyford

Derbyshire

England

ND

London Times, May 27, 1841; Alfred Swaine Taylor, ed. Thomas Stevenson, The Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1883), 601. The jury found that Marshall died of the effects of a blow received during the prizefight. Specifically, his kidney was ruptured. The prisoners were convicted. The case law is Regina v. Bell (Notts Aut. Ass. 1841).

Philip Inkin

6-Jun

1841

KO

75

William "Maggot" Brown

27

Gloucester

Gloucestershire

England

ND

(Glasgow) Scotsman, June 12, 1841. The two men had a quarrel that they decided to settle with a prize fight. After the fifteenth round, a City policeman asked if they would stop. They said no. After 45, the same policeman asked again, this time with a baton. A local squire told the policeman to stand back, saying that he had seen thirty rounds, and he wanted to see the end. At the end of 75 rounds, Brown collapsed and the fight was ended. Inkin was convicted of manslaughter, and the local squire was officially reprimanded. "Inkin," said the paper, "from injuries, is in a dangerous state. He is unmarried, and about twenty-one."

Harry Broome

Apr/

1842

KO


John Gorrick (Bungaree)


Newmarket

Suffolk

England

Heavy

Henry Downes Miles, Pugilistica: The History of British Boxing..., (London: J. Grant, 1906), 308; Joseph Irving, The Annals of Our Time: A Diurnal of Events (London: Macmillan and Co., 1880), 107.

Christopher Lilly

13-Sep

1842

KO

120

Thomas McCoy


Hastings

New York

USA

ND

Wellsboro (Pennsylvania) Tioga Eagle, September 21, 1842; Elliott Gorn, The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1986), 73-76; Joan Levy, "Chris Lilly in the middle of history," (San Mateo, California) Daily Journal, March 16, 2006, http://www.smdailyjournal.com/article_preview.php?id=55616. McCoy's corner would not throw in the towel and he ended up literally drowning in his own blood. Lilly went to England to avoid prosecution, but 18 others were arrested and convicted of fourth-degree manslaughter. Lilly later returned to the USA via New Orleans, and during the early 1850s, he was promoting boxing and cockfighting in San Francisco. In August 1856, a vigilance committee suggested that Lilly leave California for his health. So, he went to Honduras, where he was executed in February 1857. NOTE: This is not the first US ring fatality. For example, according to Plattsburgh (New York) Republican, December 6, 1817, cited at http://esf.uvm.edu/vtbox/Historical.html, "A young man was killed the other day in New York (City), in a boxing match." There is also indication of a death in New Orleans in 1834. However, there is no additional documentation, so these deaths are not listed here.

Thomas Smith (Chequer Lad)

11-Jul

1842

KO

53

James "Jemmy" Russell

23

(Outside Manchester)

Derbyshire

England

ND

Willaim E.A. Axon, The Annals of Manchester (London: J. Heywood, Deansgate and Ridgefield, 1886), 218.

Matt Rusk

15-Apr

1843

KO

169

Gilbert Freeland


Goosetown

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Wellsboro (Pennsylvania) Tioga Eagle, April 26, 1843. Freeland was an English pugilist,and Rusk was a Philadelphia bricklayer. Rusk was almost blinded by the many blows to his eyes. Nonetheless, in the 169th round, he managed to strike Freeland hard in the chest. Freeland went down, and stayed down. Seconds included men associated with the Lilly fight of 1842.

Henry Ball

5-Dec

1843

KO

21

George Gray

22

Gravesend Marsh

Kent

England

ND

London Times, December 11, 1843; London Times, December 12, 1843. This was a grudge match fought as a prizefight. Gray was knocked down and did not get up. Cause of death was bleeding in the brain. Ball was convicted of manslaughter.

Michael Manning

6-Oct

1845

KO

12

John Woodley


Saffron Walden

Essex

England

ND

London Times, Doctober 9, 1845. The two men were railway workers. This was a grudge match fought as a prizefight. Woodley was struck over the heart and he died. Cause of death was attributed to heart disease.

William Cleghorn

10-Mar

1846

KO

48

Michael Reilly


Blyth Links

Northumberland

England

ND

John Latimer, Local Records; or the Historical Register of Remarkable Events (Newcastle: Chronicle Office, 1857), 210. The fight lasted 2 hours, 21 minutes. Reilly died the following morning. Cleghorn was convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced to six months.

James Johnson

27-May

1847

KO


William Edwards


ND

Missouri

USA

ND

Brooklyn Eagle, June 5, 1847. The original citation was the St. Louis Union.

Campbell

ND

1849

KO


Robert Owens


Liverpool

Merseyside

England

ND

Racine (Wisconsin) Advocate, February 14, 1849.

William "Paddy" Gill

23-Jul

1850

KO

53

Thomas Griffiths

28

Frimley Green

Surrey

England

Bantam

London Times, August 3, 1850; Bob Mee, Bare Fists: The History of Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting (Woodstock, New York: Overlook Press, 2001), 111. The fight lasted about 1-3/4 hours, and at the end, Griffiths was unconscious. According to one theory, a second doped Griffiths using nicotine. Gill was charged with manslaughter, but acquitted of the doping charges.

Thomas Welsh (Tiny Tom)

7-Dec

1852

KO

78

George "Hammer" Wilson


Woodhead

Derbyshire

England

ND

London Times, December 9, 1852. Wilson fell, and apparently struck his head. Cause of death was a ruptured blood vessel in the brain. He had been unconscious for some time subsequent to a fight a few months earlier and reported feeling dizzy before the fight.

ND

Mar/

1853

Sparring


Rivington Duyckinck

21

New York

New York

USA

ND

New York Times, March 28, 1853. Duyckink enjoyed sparring with gloves, and did so regularly. One night during the middle of March, he came home, complaining of pain in his head. He was put to bed, and seen by the doctor. Nonetheless, he died on Friday, March 25, 1853. The cause of death was attributed to congestion of the brain, superinduced by over-exercise in sparring.

Frank Donnelly

10-Nov

1853

KO


James "Rory" Gill


Formby Beach (Liverpool)

Merseyside

England

ND

London Times, November 17, 1853. Cause of death was a fractured left lower jaw, which in turn led to a blocked windpipe.

Richardson

5-Sep

1854

KO


Thomas Crick

19

Wilmington

Ohio

USA

ND

Brooklyn Eagle, September 12, 1854. Crick was struck above the heart, and he died within minutes. It's not directly related to this death, but "a contusion of the heart muscle [can result in]… abnormal electrocardiographic changes." A.D. Dennison, Jr., "Cardiovascular situations related to athletic injures," Journal of the Indiana State Medical Asociation, January 1958, 39. In addition, writes Barry D. Jordan in Medical Aspects of Boxing (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1993), 262: "Athletes in whom the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is established should not participate in professional or recreational boxing." Meanwhile, in New York City, Frank Queen's New York Clipper becomes the first newspaper to specialize in covering sports (Queen especially liked boxing), theater, and other popular entertainment.

Charles Lynch

18-Sep

1856

KO

85

Andy Kelly


Palisades

New Jersey

USA

Bantam

Janesville (Wisconsin) Gazette, October 4, 1856; Viroqua (Wisconsin) Western Times, October 11, 1856. Kelly was carried unconscious to the hospital, where he died. Around this same time, an anonymous notice in London's Saturday Review coined the phrase "Muscular Christianity." The phrase described the philosophy that a perfect Christian gentleman should fear God, play sports, and doctor a horse with equal facility. ("The object of education," said an editorial in Spirit of the Times, "is to make men out of boys. Real live men, not bookworms, not smart fellows, but manly fellows.") This in turn began changing the interpretation of the English word "sport," which previously had referred mostly to betting on boxing matches and horse races.

James Morris (Brighton Pet)

20-May

1858

KO


Philip Redwood

26

Gravesend Marsh

Kent

England

ND

London Times, May 28, 1858; London Review, August 7, 1858, cited in Brooklyn Daily Eagle, September 11, 1858. The fight lasted about an hour. Morris was sentenced to three months imprisonment.

Mike Fagin

15-Jun

1862

KO

35

Andrew Love

17

Illinoistown

Missouri

USA

ND

Whitewater (Wisconsin) Register, June 20, 1862. Love's injuries included two broken ribs. He died the following day. See also Recollections of Corporal Marcus S. Pratt, Company G, 12th Wisconsin Infantry, http://www.russscott.com/~rscott/12thwis/marcprat.htm -- the Union general Francis P. Blair reportedly refused to move his 8,000 men to take part in the ongoing battle at Pittsburg Landing until this fight ended.

John Young

9-Oct

1866

KO

6

Edward Wilmot


Westminster (Carlton Gardens)

London

England

ND

London Times, October 30, 1866; London Times, November 3, 1866; Charles Dickens, All the Year Round, Vol. 20 (London: Chapman and Hall, 1868), 379; Montagu Stephen, Leaves of A Life; Being the Reminiscences of Montague Williams, Q.C. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1890), 220-223; Jack Anderson, "Pugilistic prosecutions: Prize fighting and the courts in nineteenth century Britain," The Sports Historian, November 2001, http://www.umist.ac.uk/sport/SPORTS%20HISTORY/BSSH/The%20Sports%20Historian/TSH%2021-2/Art3-Anderson.htm. The fight was with gloves. Because prizefighting was illegal, the match was advertised as a "protracted sparring match." The two men fought for about an hour. In the end, Young was knocked down. He struck his head against a ring post. He said did not feel well, and his second stopped the fight. Young went to the hospital, where he died five hours later. Cause of death was a rupture of an artery on the right side of the brain. The subsequent court case, R. v. Young, (1866) 10 Cox 371, established the legal precedent that death "caused by an injury received in a friendly sparring match, which is not a thing likely to cause death... is not manslaughter, unless the parties fight on until the sport becomes dangerous." (Henry Roscoe, Roscoe's Digest of the Law of Evidence in Criminal Cases, Eighth American Edition, volume II, Philadelphia, 1888, p. 912.) Another important distinction of this fight is that it took place in private rooms, and so did not cause a public nuisance. There had been cases of fence-breaking and illegal timber removal in earlier outdoor prizefights, and after 1860, most British railway companies refused to hire special trains for prizefight excursions. Indeed, the practice of hiring special prizefight trains was specifically prohibited by the Regulation of Railways Act of 1868: "Any railway company that shall knowingly let for hire any special train for the purpose of conveying parties to be present at any prize fight... shall be liable to a penalty ... of such sum not exceeding five hundred pounds, and not less than two hundred pounds." Henry Godefroi and John Shortt, The Law of Railway Companies, Comprising the Companies Clauses (London: Stevens and Haynes, 1869), 526.

Duffy

26-Jul

1868

KO

185

Jack


Albuquerque

New Mexico

USA

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Daily Gazette, July 30, 1868; Dubuque (Iowa) Daily Herald, September 19, 1868; both citing the Denver News. The fight took 6 hours, 19 minutes. Duffy's left eye was closed, two ribs were broken, and his left arm was broken. Jack, who had lost three teeth and had a broken nose, was essentially blind for the last two rounds, and he died ten minutes after the fight. The report said it was the best fight ever witnessed.

Donnelly

19-Jun

1869

KO

9

Jimmy McGuire


Ogden's Lock

New York

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, June 19, 1869. McGuire weighed about thirty pounds less than Donnelly. Nonetheless, Donnelly was the one being thrashed throughout the first eight rounds. Then, in the ninth, Donnelly struck McGuire in the temple. "McGuire dropped to the ground like a bar of lead, gasping twice, and died." Donnelly left the scene, reportedly going to Canada.

ND

3-Jul

1869

ND


Michael Ryan


Nashville

Tennessee

USA

ND

US Army, A Report of Surgical Cases Treated in the Army of the United States from 1865 to 1871 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1871), 107. Ryan was a private in Company C, 45th US Infantry. He and another soldier were boxing. Ryan was struck, but not especially hard, in the abdomen. Ryan stopped boxing, walked away, and then collapsed. Within ten minutes, the surgeon was on hand, but death occurred less than five minutes after that. Autopsy revealed a ruptured spleen.

Patrick Malone

17-Oct

1871

KO


Tom Connor

21

New York

New York

USA

ND

Elyria (Ohio) Independent Democrat, October 25, 1871. Both men were hod carriers. They had a dispute, and they decided to settle it with a prize fight. During the fight, they grappled (which was fair, under London Prize Ring Rules), and Connor was thrown. Connor reported that his neck hurt, so the fight was stopped. It turned out his neck was broken, and he died soon thereafter.

George Robinson

13-Mar

1872

KO


Robert Taylor


Sandhurst

Victoria

Australia

ND

Melbourne (Australia) Argus, March 14, 1872.

John Connor

15-Mar

1872

KO


Thomas Callis


Long Reach

Cambridge

England

ND

London Times, March 27, 1872; (Glasgow) Scotsman, March 28, 1872; Dennis Brailsford, Bareknuckles: A Social History of the Prize Ring (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1988), 158. Callis died on March 16, 1872. Cause of death was attributed to apoplexy, the result of injuries received in the fight. Connor and the seconds were convicted of manslaughter.

Charles Miller

7-Nov

1873

KO


John Lynch


Portsmouth

Hampshire

England

ND

London Times, November 11, 1873. The pugilists were soldiers, and promoters charged in the death included Captain Sir George Malcolm Fox (1843-1918). There were no convictions, and Fox's future billets included Inspector of Army Physical Training (1890-1897). As inspetor of training, Fox wrote rules for Army and amateur boxing that were widely influential in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods. One of Fox's rules was that knockouts did not count any more than any other clean blow. (One lost by not coming up for time, but not by the knockout per se.) The idea was to reduce the boxers' incentive to try for knockout punches. Arthur Frederick Bettinson and William Outram Tristam, The National Sporting Club Past and Present (London: Sands & Co., 1902), 190.

Jim Rogers

19-Nov

1873

KO

36

Jack Lewis


Ottawa

Illinois

USA

ND

United States Central Publishing Co., Important Events of the Century, Philadelphia: United States Central Publishing Co, 186.

Jimmy Weeden

31-Aug

1876

KO

76

Philip Kosta (Billy Walker)


Pennsville

New Jersey

USA

Light

Chicago Daily Tribune, September 3, 1876; Chicago Daily Tribune, September 6, 1876; New York Times, November 4, 1876; National Police Gazette, September 18, 1880, 15; Walter Campbell, "Going back in the fight game," Veteran Boxer Magazine, January-March 1945. This was a rematch, as in November 1875, the two men had fought a 41-round contest that went to Weeden. After this fight, Weeden was convicted on manslaughter charges. His second, Martin "Fiddler" Neary, and several others were also imprisoned. After getting out of prison, Weeden was shot to death (Salem, Ohio, Daily News, September 9, 1890).

Patrick "Paddy" McDermott

28-Dec

1876

Ldec

24

Daniel Davidson

24

Boston

Massachusetts

USA

ND

Boston Daily Globe, December 29, 1876; New York Times, December 31, 1876. The men were professionals, and fighting with "the ordinary stuffed boxing-gloves with which it is impossible to inflict serious injury." There was no referee, but there was a time-keeper. Witnesses included several police officers in uniform. Davidson quit from exhaustion, and died about an hour later. Although both men were carried to their marks for the last couple of rounds, "neither man was bruised to any extent" (New York Times), and death was attributed to cardiac trouble.

Taylor

12-Aug

1877

KO


William Scully


Melbourne

Victoria

Australia

ND

Melbourne (Australia) Argus, August 14, 1877; Melbourne (Australia) Argus, August 15, 1877; Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, August 20, 1877; Melbourne (Australia) Argus, September 19, 1877.

William Henry Booth

18-Jun

1881

KO

8

Denis Kellcher

25

Sydney

New South Wales

Australia

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, August 25, 1881. The fight was in the eighth round when the police arrived to break it up. Kellcher ran with everyone else, but collapsed and died. Booth and his second were arrested.

James "Jem" Carney

7-Oct

1881

Draw

43

James Highland


Middleton

Warwickshire

England

Light

(Dublin) Irish Times, October 17, 1881; Billy Edwards, Gladiators of the Prize Ring: Heroes of All Nations (Philadelphia: Pugilistic Publishing, 1894), 123; Syracuse (New York) Post Standard, October 27, 1956. The police stopped the fight after the fight had gone on for an hour and 45 minutes. Highland had his ribs broken, and died four days later. Cause of death was given as inflammation of the lungs. Carney was acquitted of manslaughter but convicted of prizefighting, and sentenced to six months imprisonment. Upon getting out of jail, Carney resumed boxing, and he was the English lightweight champion from December 1884 to May 1891.

ND

Apr/

1882

KO


Daniel Keller


Celina

Ohio

USA

ND

Cambridge (Ohio) Jeffersonian, May 4, 1882; Athens (Ohio) Messenger, May 4, 1882. Gloves were worn. Keller was struck on the right temple, and died. (NOTE: There was a 31-year-old farmer by the name of Daniel Keller living in Mercer County, Ohio, in 1880; this is possibly him.)

John Shea

11-Mar

1883

KO


Bernard Carr

23

South Boston

Massachusetts

USA

ND

Newport (Rhode Island) Mercury, March 17, 1883. The contest was with gloves. Carr fell or was knocked down, and did not get up. He died the following day. Cause of death was attributed to a burst blood vessel in the head.

Mike McLaughlin

2-Apr

1883

KO

20

Martin Linskey

18

Dubois

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Davenport (Iowa) Daily Gazette, April 4, 1883; Reno Evening Gazette, April 4, 1883; Pennsylvania (Indiana) Indiana Democrat, April 12, 1883. The bout was fought by London Prize Ring rules. At the start of the last round, men clinched, and Linskey was thrown. He hit the ground face first, and he died almost instantly. Cause of death was listed as broken neck.

Robert B. Williams

8-Mar

1884

KO

1

Oliver Dyer Jr.

21

New Haven

Connecticut

USA

ND

Newark (Ohio) Daily Advocate, March 11, 1884; Fort Wayne (Indiana) Daily Gazette, March 13, 1884; New York Times, March 15, 1884; New York Times, March 17, 1884 (Letters to the Editor); Yale University Class of 1886, Vicennial Record. Both boxers were students at Yale College. Dyer was reportedly feeling dizzy before the bout, and some onlookers attributed this to drinking. During the bout, Dyer was not very active, and he was knocked down by a blow to the chin. During the fall, his head may have hit the floor. Death was attributed to apoplexy brought on by excitement.

"Kilrain"

5-Apr

1884

KO

58

Nickvest


Hyndman

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

New York Times, April 6, 1884; Albert Lea (Minnesota) Freeborn County Standard, April 16, 1884. The bout was fought according to London Prize Rules. Both boxers were in bad shape by the 24th round, but the crowd refused to let the fight stop. Finally, in the 58th round, Nickvest collapsed, and the cry went up, "Foul!" The referees and seconds drew their guns, and by the time the shooting stopped, Nickvest was dead of a broken head, one man in the crowd had been shot dead, three other members of the crowd shot, and others injured.

Jimmy Lawson

17-Apr

1885

KO

15

Alec Agar


Melbourne

Victoria

Australia

Middle

Australian Encyclopaedia, 1926, 346; Collins Australian Encyclopedia, 1984, 90. Lawson was African American and Agar was white European, and this death led to a prohibition on mixed race boxing in Melbourne.

Frank McGonigle

3-Mar

1886

KO

43

James Sheady


Fayetteville

West Virginia

USA

Middle

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, March 5, 1886; Chester (Pennsylavania) Times, March 5, 1886. Although fought for a purse of $50, this was also a grudge match. As for rules, well, McGonigle's little finger was bitten off, and his right ear was torn away. Meanwhile, McGonigle's techniques included kicking Sheady while the latter was down. Sheady died at his home, and McGonigle and his seconds left the county.

James

31-Jul

1886

KO

32

Evans


Rhondda


Wales

ND

Reno Evening Gazette, August 2, 1886; Bradford (Pennsylvania) Daily Era, August 2, 1886. Evans was carried from the ring and put into a carriage, but died before reaching his home.

Thomas Wagner (Fred Behringer)

12-Apr

1887

KO

1

Elijah Watters (Lije Walker)


Napa

California

USA

ND

Coshocton (Ohio) Semi Weekly Age, April 15, 1887; (Reno) Weekly State Journal, August 27, 1887. The fight was a grudge match, and the cause of death was listed as broken neck. Behringer was smaller, and the jury acquitted him.

Simon Besser (Swipes the Newsboy; aka Tom White)

22-Jan

1888

KO


William Dempsey

22

Brooklyn

New York

USA

Light

Chicago Daily Tribune, January 23, 1888; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, February 25, 1888; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, February 26, 1888; Waterloo (Iowa) Daily Courier, December 21, 1891; Syracuse (New York) Herald, December 3, 1911. Although Dempsey fought lightweight, he weighed about 114 pounds. The bout took place in a back room of Red Leary's Live Oak Hotel. Two-ounce gloves were worn, and it was a finish fight fought according to Queensberry Rules. Dempsey was hit in the temple. He collapsed, and did not get up. The promoter said he didn't know the names of anyone who was there, and the seconds said that death was due either to the fall or to Dempsey being unfit for boxing. Besser was about 18, and he remained a professional boxer for several years. Besser's wife Minnie also boxed professionally (Chicago Daily Tribune, November 2, 1892).

ND

4-Mar

1888

KO


ND


Albert Park


New Zealand

ND

Otago (New Zealand) Witness, March 9, 1888. "A young man, married and with a small family, has died as the result of a prize fight… He fought till he slipped off his second's knee in a faint. The doctors declare he was simply beaten to death." This was a grudge match, fought according to London Prize Ring rules, with side bets.

ND

2-Apr

1888

KO

50

William Drury


Nottinghamshire

East Midlands

England

ND

London Times, May 24, 1888. Drury failed to make the mark for the fifty-first round. Cause of death was attributed to brain disease.

Furhman

8-May

1888

KO


Fred Winkler


Greenfield Park

Wisconsin

USA

ND

Oshkosh (Wisconsin) Daily Northwestern, May 8, 1888; New Philadelphia (Ohio) Democrat, May 17, 1888. Winkler was knocked down by a blow to the left side.

Tom Bannon (Young Barrett, Boston Casey)

23-Sep

1888

KO

1

George Fulljames

30

Grand Forks

Dakota Territory

USA

Middle

Mitchell (Dakota Territory) Daily Republican, September 25, 1888; Plattsburgh (New York) Republican, October 6, 1888, cited at http://esf.uvm.edu/vtbox/Historical.html. Although a one-round knockout, remember that under London Prize Ring Rules, rounds lasted until there was a knockdown or fall. Anyway, Bannon reportedly held Fulljames' hand, and then struck him repeatedly in the temple. However, the coroner's inquest ruled that it was a slung shot that struck Fulljames in the temple, causing his death, rather than a blow from a fist. Either way, the bettors didn't want Fulljames winning. As for Bannon, he was murdered about a week later. See Salem (Ohio) Daily News, April 22, 1889 and Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 20, 1889.

Barker

8-Oct

1888

KO


John Dallas


Lilydale

Victoria

Australia

ND

Otago (New Zealand) Witness, October 26, 1888; Te Aroha (New Zealand) News, November 28, 1888,

Jerry Flower

12-Mar

1889

KO

4

John Kendall


Couer D'Alene

Idaho

USA

ND

Newark (Ohio) Daily Advocate, March 13, 1889. Kendall was black and Flower was white.

Ed Cuffe

26-Apr

1889

KO

4

Tom Avery


San Francisco

California

USA

ND

Reno Evening Gazette, April 27, 1889. The bout was with gloves, and was scheduled for 6 rounds. During the fourth, Cuffe fell to the floor and died. Cause of death was attributed to heart failure.

Edward Herron (Ed Ahearn)

16-Sep

1889

KO

11

Thomas E. Jackson (Jack King)

18

St. Louis

Missouri

USA

Feather

Reno Evening Gazette, September 17, 1889; Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Post, September 18, 1889; New York Times, September 18, 1889; Decatur (Illinois) Daily Despatch, September 18, 1889; Decatur (Illinois) Saturday Herald, September 21, 1889; Albert Lea (Minnesota) Freeborn County Standard, October 3, 1889. The venue was a saloon on Seventh Street in St. Louis, between Market and Chestnut, that was owned by by Dan, Charlie, and Johnny Daly. The purse was $30. Two-ounce gloves were worn, and the fight started at midnight. Within the first couple rounds, both the boxers and the ring floor were slick with blood. At the start of the twelfth, Jackson stood up, then fell backwards, and the fight was stopped. After Jackson died, Herron and the seconds were arrested on charges of murder in the second degree. Herron told the police that Jackson must have had heart disease, because he had not been hit hard enough to cause death. Newspaper coverage of this bout was extensive, in part because the referee, Joe Murphy, was the former sporting editor of the St. Louis Globe-Democrat.

Tom Branch

27-Sep

1889

KO


Ernest Willingham


Allatoona

Georgia

USA

ND

Indiana (Pennsylvania) Progress, October 2, 1889; New Philadelphia (Ohio) Democrat, October 3, 1889. Willingham was "negro," while Branch was white.

John Gallagher

17-Dec

1889

KO

105

George W. Ward

30

Butte

Montana

USA

Heavy

Helena (Montana) Independent, December 17, 1889, in the boxing file at Montana Historical Society; Dunkirk (New York) Evening Observer, December 18, 1889; Butte (Montana) Anaconda Standard, April 10, 1903; Frank Bell, Gladiators of the Glittering Gulches (Helena, Montana: Western Horizons Books, 1985), 63-66. The two men decided to settle a dispute via a prizefight. Gallagher's arm was injured in the 48th round. Moreover, his body had a lot of bruises and his face was badly swollen. Nonetheless, the fight went on, and in the 98th round, Gallagher caught Ward with a blow under the chin that knocked Ward down. Ward's seconds pushed him out for round 99 while he was just half conscious. Gallagher knocked Ward down eleven times more times, and at the end of the 105th round, Gallagher was declared the winner. Ward died the following day, and Gallagher left the territory ahead of the manslaughter warrant.

James Farrell

26-Dec

1889

KO

5

James Burns


Plymouth

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Mitchell (South Dakota) Daily Republican, December 26, 1889.


Table 2: Toughman deaths, 1979 to present


Name

Day/Mo

Year

Res

Rd

Deceased

Age

City

State

Weight

Original/Not Original Toughman

Source/Remarks

ND

22-Mar

1981

KO


Ronald Miller

23

Johnstown

Pennsylvania

ND

Original Toughman

Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, March 25, 1981; Detroit News, March 5, 2003, “Toughman bouts with danger,” www.jameshoyer.com/news_toughman_din.pdf; CBS Evening News, May 8, 1981. Desperate for the prize money, Miller fought three bouts in two nights, despite headaches after the first round. After the third fight, during which he was knocked down several times, he was taken to the hospital, where he died the following morning. Early Toughman bouts were two minutes in length, with no headgear, but after this death headgear began to be required. As noted above, Original Toughman dates to 1979, and this is its first known fatality.

J.J.

10-Mar

1981

TKO

2

Viken “Vic” Ayvazian

21

Laverne

California

Middle (150-lb)

Not Original Toughman

Los Angeles Times, March 14, 1981; Los Angeles Times, March 15, 1981; Los Angeles Times, March 18, 1981; Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1981; Los Angeles Times, April 28, 1981; CBS Evening News, May 8, 1981. Ayvazian fought in an unregulated “Tough Guy” contest. His opponent was about 40 pounds heavier. Ayvazian complained of a headache after the fight. He was admitted to the hospital, where surgery was done to try to repair a blood clot on the brain. He died on April 26, 1981. NOTE: Tough Guy was based on Original Toughman. Men’s Original Toughman, promoted by Art Dore, dates to 1979; women’s events were added in 1996. See Greg Fagan, “Stupid Fun,” Maxim Online, June 1998, http://www.maximonline.com/stupid_fun/articles/article_584.html.

ND

11-Jul

1987

Wdec

3

Robert Rollins

33

Montgomery

Alabama

Heavy

Not Original Toughman

Detroit News, March 5, 2003, “Toughman bouts with danger,” www.jameshoyer.com/news_toughman_din.pdf. Immediately after the fight, Rollins complained of being dizzy. Soon after, he died. Death was attributed to a heart attack. Rollins, who stood 6 feet tall and weighed 280 pounds, had been taking medicine for high blood pressure for months before the fight.

ND

Mar/

1992

KO


Ricky Sanders

27

Scottsboro

Alabama

ND

Not Original Toughman

Detroit News, March 5, 2003, “Toughman bouts with danger,” www.jameshoyer.com/news_toughman_din.pdf.

Terry Vermaelen

11-Jun

1994

TKO

2

Bobby Troy DePue

26

Lafayette

Louisiana

ND

Original Toughman

Keith O’Brien, “Ultimate fighting,” New Orleans Times-Picayune, October 23, 2003, http://www.nola.com/news/t-p/index.ssf?/base/news-0/106689292994050.xml; Detroit News, March 5, 2003, “Toughman bouts with danger,” www.jameshoyer.com/news_toughman_din.pdf. DePue quit in the second round, and the crowd booed. He collapsed soon after, saying he couldn’t breathe, and he died in hospital the following day. The cause of death was listed as blunt force trauma exacerbating a pre-existing heart condition.

ND

9-Apr

1995

KO


Zinious Haynes

38

Fayetteville

North Carolina

ND

Original Toughman

Detroit News, March 5, 2003, “Toughman bouts with danger,” www.jameshoyer.com/news_toughman_din.pdf. The morning after the fight, Haynes woke his mother to say his head hurt. An ambulance took him to the hospital, where he died three hours later. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain.

ND

14-Dec

1995

KO


Eric Crow

23

Kansas City

Kansas

ND

Original Toughman

Kansas City Star, December 15, 1995; James A. Fussell, “The mom who got tough on a deadly sport,” Good Housekeeping, July 1997; Detroit News, March 5, 2003, “Toughman bouts with danger,” www.jameshoyer.com/news_toughman_din.pdf; http://cctr.umkc.edu/~tjthompson/pap1.htm. After the fight, Crow was dazed, and the next day, he couldn’t get out of bed. He was taken to the hospital, where he died. Cause of death was heavy bleeding inside the brain.

Harold Brashear

19-Jul

1996

KO

3

Donald L. Lewis

23

Hazard

Kentucky

ND

Not Original Toughman

Warrendale (Pennsylvania) North Hills News Record, July 30, 1996; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, July 30, 1996. The event was called Iron Man. After the fight, Lewis rested, talked to the doctor, and walked down the road to a convenience store to get Gatorade. He collapsed at the counter. An ambulance was called. He was pronounced dead on arrival at the hospital.

The Ironman

14-Sep

2002

KO

1

Art Liggins

44

Meridian

Idaho

ND

Original Toughman

Match that killed Meridian boxer banned in some states,” Idaho Statesman, September 17, 2002, http://204.228.236.37/News/story.asp?ID=20580; Holden Parrish, “Suing for some peace of mind,” Idaho State Journal, January 11, 2004, http://www.journalnet.com/articles/2004/01/11/news/local/news02.txt. Liggins was a former National Junior Olympics champion, and he had been training hard. However, he had not boxed competitively in 18 years. He had won a fight the previous night, and two more that day. During his last fight, he was struck once on the cheek. The blow did not appear especially hard. Nonetheless, Liggins fell unconscious, and he died in hospital the following day. The autopsy revealed blood clots in his head, probably from one or more of the three previous bouts.

Jim Sluder

14-Sep

2002

KO

2

Michael Kuhn

26

College Station

Texas

ND

Original Toughman

Jeremiah Nichols, "Full of fight," Bryan-College Station Eagle, September 22, 2003, http://www.theeagle.com/brazossunday/092202toughman.htm; “Injuries claim life of College Station boxer,” Corpus Christi Caller-Times, September 23, 2002, http://www.caller.com/ccct/texas_sports/article/0,1641,CCCT_993_1434513,00.html; Texas A&M BattalionOnline, September 26, 2002, http://www.thebatt.com/vnews/display.v/ART/2002/09/23/3d8ecbec89b6b. Kuhn was recruited for this fight in a bar. He had no prior boxing experience. He won a fight on Friday night, and so he fought again on Saturday. Between the second and third rounds, he went to his corner, said, “I feel sick,” and then passed out. He subsequently died in hospital. The autopsy found that blood vessels connecting the brain and the skull were severed. This was said to be the eighth Toughman death in the USA, and the first in Texas. See also Doug J. Swanson, “Gib Lewis was Toughman ally,” Dallas Morning News, November 25, 2003.

ND

3-May

2002

KO

3

Nelson Land

23

Jacksonville

Florida

ND

Not Original Toughman

Man dies of ‘Fight Night’ injuries, News4Jax.com, May 7, 2002, http://www.news4jax.com/jax/news/stories/news-143888120020507-060542.html; “No charges to be filed in Jacksonville nightclub boxing death,” AP, May 29, 2002, http://www.wtlv.com/news/2002-05-29/local_boxing.asp. Land was participating in a nightclub’s open fights. He was struck on the chin. He stumbled backwards, lost consciousness, and died in hospital three days later. He had been drinking prior to the fight, but his blood alcohol level was within legal limits.

Jason “Piledriver” Pyles

3-Jan

2003

Wdec

3

Scott Wood

31

Mount Pleasant

Michigan

ND

Original Toughman

Sarasota (Florida) Herald-Tribune, June 29, 2003; Associated Press, “Texas boxer dies after suffering injuries in Toughman bout,” News8Austin, http://www.news8austin.com/content/headlines/?ArID=59217&SecID=2; Andy Grimm, “Death of a toughman,” Saginaw News, February 23, 2003, http://www.mlive.com/search/index.ssf?/base/news-4/1045999316311060.xml?sanews; “Toughman fighter’s death ruled homicide,” Gambling Magazine, February 2, 2003, http://www.gamblingmagazine.com/managearticle.asp?c=380&a=1837. Wood was reluctant during the fight, and afterwards complained of head pain and blurred vision. He lost consciousness, and he died in hospital three weeks later. Cause of death was subdural hematoma. The coroner ruled the death a homicide, but no charges were filed.

Josh Snow

26-Jan

2005

KO

2

Steven Burress

27

Dayton

Ohio

Heavy

Original Toughman

Elyria (Ohio) Chronicle Telegram, February 1, 2005; Dayton (Ohio) Daily News, January 27, 2006; “Ohio man dies in fight promoted by local businessman,” Bay City (Michigan) Times, February 3, 2005, http://www.mlive.com/news/bctimes/index.ssf?/base/news-4/1107449124310990.xml. Burress had won on fight the night before, plus two fights earlier that night, and so advanced to the finals. However, he was tired, and after two knockdowns, the referee stopped the fight in the second. Burress collapsed again, outside the ring, and he died the following day in the hospital. Cause of death was subdural hemorrhage.


Table 3: Training deaths, 1890 to present


Survivor

Day/Mo

Year

Deceased

Age

City

County/State

Country

Weight

Pro/Amateur

Source/Remarks

ND

ND

1892

William Sheriff (The Prussian)

45

London

London

England

Light heavy

Professional

Billy Edwards, Gladiators of the Prize Ring: Heroes of All Nations (Philadelphia: Pugilistic Publishing, 1894), 65. During a fight in the USA, Sheriff injured his leg. He returned to England, the injury became gangrenous, and the infection proved fatal. Date of death was June 4, 1893.

Arthur Foster

13-Feb

1894

Alfred Hosmer Linder

19

Cambridge

Massachusetts

USA

ND

Professional

New York Times, February 19, 1894; Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Journal, February 24, 1894; Secretary's Report, No. 1, Harvard College Class of 1895, 60, 176; "Alfred Hosmer Linder '95," http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=316563. The boxers were college students. Seven ounce gloves were worn. Linder was struck on the jaw. He congratulated Foster on the blow, and then fell to the floor. Cause of death was listed as concussion of the brain. A scholarship was subsequently established in Linder's name at Harvard College.

Ed Turner

7-Oct

1894

John A. Gerharty

14

New Orleans

Louisiana

USA

ND

Amateur

Los Angeles Times, October 8, 1894. The youths were sparring, and Gerharty dropped dead following a blow to the heart.

ND

Jan/

1895

Michael Nugent


Springfield

Ohio

USA

ND

Professional

Cumberland (Maryland) Evening Times, January 8, 1895. A few days prior to his death on January 8, Nugent had been boxing with a friend. He was punched in the nose. Cause of death was a clot on the brain.

William Gollie

13-Mar

1897

Peter O'Shay


Cheyenne

Wyoming

USA

ND

Amateur

Marble Rock (Iowa) Weekly, March 18, 1897. Both boxers were privates in the 8th US Infantry assigned to Fort D.A. Russell (modern Warren Air Force Base).

Peter Langtry

24-Apr

1897

Rudolph Babst

48

Brooklyn

New York

USA

ND

Amateur

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 25, 1897; New York Times, April 25, 1897. Babst, a recently retired Army recruiting sergeant, was sparring with a 17-year-old man. The two sparred for about 2 minutes, during which time Babst was struck repeatedly in the face and torso. Babst staggered backwards, saying, "I guess I've got enough." He sat down in a chair, and died. Babst had been diagnosed earlier with a heart condition.

Frank Shoemaker

27-Apr

1897

Daniel Thomas

14

Lima

Ohio

USA

ND

Amateur

Fort Wayne (Indiana) News, April 28, 1897; Marble Rock (Iowa) Weekly, May 6, 1897. This does not appear to have been an organized bout. Thomas, a newsboy, was knocked down by a blow over the heart. He staggered home, and died soon after. Shoemaker, who was 21 years old, left town.

ND

Oct/

1901

Charles Northeast


Gosport

Hampshire

England

ND

Professional

Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, October 29, 1901. Northeast was a private in the Royal Marines, and he died in hospital following a boxing match with a fellow Marine.

Jerome Wood

Jun/

1901

Charles Varney

18

Gallipolis

Ohio

USA

ND

Professional

Coshocton (Ohio) Daily Age, June 11, 1901. Varney died "by being hit over the heart while playfully boxing with a companion."

George R. Ainsworth

26-Jan

1901

Curtis L. Crane


Cambridge

Massachusetts

USA

ND

Amateur

Davenport (Iowa) Daily Republican, January 27, 1901; Syracuse (New York) Sunday Herald, January 27, 1901; Anaconda (Montana) Standard, January 28, 1901; New York Times, January 28, 1901. The two men were college students, Crane at Harvard University and Ainsworth at Lawrence Scientific School (the latter did not become part of Harvard University until 1906). Ainsworth was acting as boxing instructor. The men had been sparring about three minutes when Crane was struck in the face. Crane collapsed backwards, and within eight minutes, he was dead. Cause of death was said to be heart disease.

Thomas West

23-Sep

1901

George Johnson

37

Brooklyn

New York

USA

Welter

Amateur

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, September 25, 1901; Washington Post, September 26, 1901. Johnson was an amateur who enjoyed sparring with professionals in the gym. After being hit hard in the head, Johnson went home saying that he had a headache. He died two days later of a brain injury. West was arrested.

G. F. Paff and R.M. Nickelson

24-Oct

1905

Grover Muldoon

19

Indianapolis

Indiana

USA

ND

Amateur

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Weekly Sentinel, November 1, 1905. After sparring with his roommates for about half an hour, Muldoon, a college student, began vomiting. He was taken to the hospital, where he died. Cause of death was said to be cerebral hemorrhage.

Robert Moore

17-Sep

1908

Adolph Bach


Milwaukee

Wisconsin

USA

ND

Professional

Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Evening Gazette, September 19, 1908. The two men were sparring, using one-minute rounds. After the round, Bach asked for water, then fell unconscious to the floor. Cause of death was attributed to a fractured skull.

Bud Class

7-Feb

1909

Ernest Free

18

Edge (Brazos County)

Texas

USA

ND

Amateur

Galveston (Texas) Daily News, February 9, 1909. Free was hit over the heart. He collapsed, and died two hours later.

John Scanlon

13-Feb

1909

Frank Crossland

15

Boston

Massachusetts

USA

ND

Amateur

Washington Post, February 19, 1909. The youths were boxing after school. Crossland was knocked down, and died fifteen minutes later. The school principal said it was not a fight, but a sparring match. During this period, boxing was being emphasized as a good bodybuilder, and boxing was recommended for inclusion in public school physical fitness programs. Proponents included Dr. Philip O'Hanlon of the New York Coroner's office. "Post-mortem examinations on bodies of small boys have impressed upon Dr. O'Hanlon... the great lack of chest development these lads must have had in life. As the best means of safely attaining lung development in the physically formative years, he urges the effectiveness of boxing, properly conducted. He mentions President Roosevelt as an example of the efficacy of the 'manly sport' in chest building" (Syracuse, New York, Herald, January 25, 1909).

Private Weston

Mar/

1910

Private A. Tindall


Aldershot Barracks

Hampshire

England

ND

Amateur

London Times, March 11, 1910; (Glasgow) Scotsman, March 11, 1910. During sparring at the Army base, Tindall was struck on the jaw. He collapsed, and did not get up. Cause of death was originally attributed to heart failure, but the autopsy showed a ruptured artery in the brain.

ND

4-Aug

1912

W. Furness

18

Greymouth


New Zealand

ND

Amateur

Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, August 5, 1912. While training for a tournament, Furness complained of being tired, then died.

ND

20-May

1913

Frank Carbone

18

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Heavy

Professional

Boston Daily Globe, May 26, 1913; Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, May 26, 1913. Cause of death was attributed to shock caused by a blow to the abdomen.

ND

Feb/

1916

Arthur Cote

38

Augusta

Maine

USA

Light

Professional

New York Times, February 11, 1916; Augusta (Maine) Daily Kennebec Journal, May 1, 1916. Cote was a former lightweight champion. He fell while training for a fight, and death was formally attributed to this fall. However, the family maintained the cause of death was injuries received during a fist fight near Government Reservation. In any event, cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

Willie Gould

ND

1917

Federico Lefrancois


ND


Argentina

Feather

Professional

Manuel Velazquez collection. Gould's last scheduled fight was in March 1915.

Andrew Lockett

11-Mar

1920

Milton Sternfeld


New York

New York

USA

ND

Amateur

New York Times, March 13, 1920; Syracuse (New York) Herald, March 12, 1920; Kansas City (Missouri) Star, March 12, 1920; New York Times, March 20, 1920. The boxers were students at Columbia University, and the university treasurer posted Lockett's $2,000 bail. Sternfeld was a former Army lieutenant and current post-graduate student, while Lockett was a sophomore.

ND

31-Jan

1921

Irving Gray Anderson

18

Annapolis

Maryland

USA

ND

Amateur

New York Times, February 6, 1921; 1920; Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Census Place: Annapolis Ward 1, Anne Arundel, Maryland; Roll: T625_654; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 6; Image: 53. Anderson, a midshipman at the Naval Academy, had been sparring with his roommate for several weeks. He knew he had been hit hard in the nose, but it was several days before he decided to go on sick call. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

Sam McVea

19-Jun

1922

Donald "Kid" Kelly


Kingston


Jamaica

Light

Professional

Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, June 21, 1922. Kelly had a major contest scheduled for July 5, 1922, and McVea was his sparring partner. After three rounds of sparring, Kelly complained of not feeling well, so he was taken to the hospital, where he died.

Elmer Cross

4-Sep

1922

Louis Barrese

18

Easton

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Professional

New York Times, September 22, 1922; Oakland Tribune, September 4, 1922. Five minutes after being knocked down, Barrese died. Cause of death was given as over-exertion.

ND

ND

1923

Mick Rutherford


Melbourne

Victoria

Australia

Light

Professional

Manuel Velazquez collection. Rutherford twisted his right ankle during a bout. The injury became infected, and doctors amputated the foot. He died of surgical complications.

"Big Joe" Harnick

3-Apr

1924

Earnest "Count" Loske

32

Kansas City

Missouri

USA

Middle

Professional

Port Arthur (Texas) News, April 4, 1924; (Lincoln) Nebraska State Journal, April 5, 1924. Loske was sparring with his trainer.

ND

May/

1924

Joe Minehan

19

Boston

Massachusetts

USA

ND

Amateur

New York Times, June 26, 1924. Minehan was from Boston College, and he was expected to make the 1924 Olympics team. However, he collapsed during a training bout, and he died June 25, 1924. Cause of death was listed as anemia.

Nina Roundtree

Jun/

1925

George Schofield

50

Heaven City

Illinois

USA

ND

Amateur

Olean (New York) Times, June 16, 1925; Syracuse (New York) Herald, July 26, 1925. Heaven City was a commune outside Harvard, Illinois, and Roundtree was Schofield's 15-year-old girlfriend. Schofield boasted that he was a boxer, and to prove it, he sparred a male member of the commune. However, he fared badly against the man. Roundtree was upset at this, and put on the gloves herself. She then proceeded to box, while Schofield proceeded to have a heart attack.

Irving Selder

14-Feb

1926

Walter Jones

19

Tacoma

Washington

USA

Welter

Professional

Fresno (California) Bee, February 15, 1926; Seattle Times, February 15, 1926; New York Times, February 16, 1926; Helena (Montana) Independent, February 15, 1926; Merle A. Reinikka, "Death certificates of Finns in Pierce County, Washington," http://www.genealogia.fi/emi/emi3d20p3e.htm. During training, Jones sparred two rounds with Selder, who was a middleweight. After time was called, he slumped to the floor, where he died before medical aid could be obtained. Death certificate reads "acute dilatation of right auricle from over-exercise while training as a boxer. Single. Boxer-pugilist."

Ernest Taylor

10-Dec

1926

Fred Canady

29

Chicago

Illinois

USA

ND

Professional

Chicago Daily Tribune, December 16, 1926. Canady was knocked out during a sparring match at Ferrell's gym. He was taken home unconscious, and he died there five days later. His sparring partner may have been the Toronto flyweight Ernie Taylor.

Clayton "Big Boy" Peterson

11-Jan

1926

Preston "Prince" Brown

28

New Orleans

Louisiana

USA

Heavy

Professional

Olean (New York) Evening Times, January 12, 1926. Cause of death was brain injury. Both boxers were black.

ND

29-Nov

1926

Emrys Bishop

20

Caerphilly


Wales

ND

Amateur

(Dublin) Irish Times, November 30, 1926. Bishop and his friend were sparring. Bishop was hit near the heart. He stepped back, and fell down. He died at the scene.

ND

4-May

1927

Frank Rea (Frankie Ray)

22

San Antonio

Texas

USA

Light

Professional

Dallas Morning News, May 6, 1927. Cause of death was attributed to a broken artery in the head. Rea had fought professionally in California and Arizona, but had only sparred in Texas.

ND

27-Jul

1927

Antone Corriera (Kid Peters)

33

Fall River

Massachusetts

USA

Light

Professional

New York Times, July 30, 1927. Corriera, a former professional, was teaching a boxing class. A student struck him hard, and he died two days later of intestinal perforation.

ND

6-Apr

1928

Jess Stringham

25

Salt Lake City

Utah

USA

Middle

Professional

San Francisco Chronicle, April 6, 1928; Danville (Virginia) Bee, April 7, 1928. At the gym, Stringer complained that he did not feel well. Then he collapsed. He was taken to the hospital, where he died. Cause of death was attributed to internal hemorrhage.

Philip Bromley

20-Mar

1928

Michael Carnakis

20

Los Angeles

California

USA

Welter

Amateur

Fort William (Ontario) Daily Times-Journal, March 21, 1928; Bismarck (North Dakota) Tribune, March 21, 1928. Both men were students sparring at the university gym, and both fell during an exchange of blows. Bromley, age 19, was unconscious for 1 hour, 45 minutes, and Carnakis died. Carnakis had a history of basal skull fracture and cause of death was listed as cerebral hemorrhage.

Les Marriner

14-Apr

1928

Fred Bobzin

21

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Heavy

Amateur

Dallas Morning News, April 15, 1928; Chicago Daily Tribune, April 15, 1928; Bismarck (North Dakota) Tribune, April 16, 1928. Bobzin, a sophomore at the University of Illinois, was sparring with Marriner, who was a professional boxer. Sixteen-ounce gloves were being worn, and the sparring was supervised by Paul Prehn, chairman of the state boxing commission. After a few minutes, Bobzin said he didn't feel well, so the sparring was stopped. "I hope you don't think I'm yellow," he said, and then went to the dressing room, where, ten minutes later, he was found unconscious. He was then taken to the hospital, where he died. Cause of death was attributed to hemorrhage of the brain.

ND

12-Nov

1929

Johnny O'Keefe

25

Columbus

Ohio

USA

Light

Professional

Lima (Ohio) News, November 12, 1929. In May 1929, O'Keefe had retired from the ring following four straight losses, but he subsequently decided to try a comeback. His first comeback bout was scheduled for the next Friday night.

Marvin Williams

Apr/

1929

Willie Rizutto

23

La Junta

Colorado

USA

ND

Professional

New York Times, April 18, 1929; Bismarck (North Dakota) Tribune, April 17, 1929; Danville (Virginia) Bee, April 17, 1929. The fatal sparring match occurred about a week before. Rizutto died without regaining consciousness on April 16, 1929. Cause of death was brain injury.

ND

27-Sep

1929

Johnny Hill

23

Glasgow


Scotland

Fly

Professional

"Johnny Hill, Scotland's first boxing world champion 1928," bbc.co.uk, http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/sportscotland/asportingnation/article/0082/print.shtml. Hill died of a broken blood vessel in his lung. The origin of this condition was attributed to a chill caught while training.

ND

30-Nov

1929

Carl Howell

19

Chicago

Illinois

USA

ND

Amateur

Chicago Daily Tribune, December 4, 1929; Oakland Tribune, December 4, 1929. Howell had been boxing at the South Chicago YMCA. He reported no ill effects at the time, but the next day, he reported severe headaches. Death was attributed to concussion of the brain.

Duane Duncan

25-Jan

1930

John "Red" Wilford

21

Kalamazoo

Michigan

USA

Light Heavy

Professional

Helena (Montana) Independent, January 25, 1930; Port Arthur (Texas) News, January 26, 1930. Knocked down during sparring, Wilford's head struck an unpadded turn-buckle. He died of cerebral hemorrhage.

David Maier

29-Aug

1930

Dean Spaulding

28

Oconomowoc

Wisconsin

USA

Middle

Professional

Bismarck (North Dakota) Tribune, August 30, 1930; Waterloo (Iowa) Daily Courier, August 30, 1930; Sheboygan (Wisconsin) Press, August 30, 1930; Lima (Ohio) News, August 31, 1930. Spaulding was training for a bout with Ben Danske, a Milwaukee middleweight. Maier was a light heavyweight. While sparring, Spaulding was knocked down by a blow to the jaw. Cause of death was attributed to skull fracture secondary to Spaulding striking his head on the floor.

ND

7-Apr

1930

Gordon L. Saunders

23

Ballston Spa

New York

USA

ND

Professional

New York Times, April 9, 1930. Cause of death listed as enlargement of the thymus gland in the throat.

Al Stillman

21-Apr

1931

William Kardinski

19

Belleville

Illinois

USA

Heavy

Amateur

Edwardsville (Illinois) Intelligencer, April 24, 1931; New York Times, May 16, 1931; Zanesville (Ohio) Signal, April 24, 1931. The men were training for a charity program when Kardinski collapsed. He died in hospital two days later. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

10-Feb

1932

Arthur Vincent

19

Hollywood

California

USA

ND

Amateur

Connellsville (Pennsylvania) Daily Courier, February 10, 1932. Vincent was trying out for a junior college boxing team. He collapsed while sparring another student, and he was pronounced dead an hour later. Cause of death was attributed to heart failure.

ND

29-Aug

1932

Thomas Swan

24

Invercargill


New Zealand

ND

Amateur

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

Thomas McGillivary

10-Sep

1932

Gilbert Ernest Ellery


Oamaru


New Zealand

ND

Amateur

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

Joseph Robert

4-Dec

1932

William Lafroy

43

Sturgeon Falls

Ontario

Canada

ND

Amateur

Canandaigua (New York) Daily Messenger, December 5, 1932. The men were sparring. Lefroy said, "Wait a minute," then collapsed.

John Fitzgerald

3-Dec

1935

John Sheridan


Brisbane

Queensland

Australia

ND

Professional

Manuel Velazquez collection. Sheridan was struck in solar plexus, but autopsy revealed no cause of death.

Lorenzo "Pete" Pedro

13-Feb

1935

Eddie Kimm

24

San Francisco

California

USA

Light Heavy

Professional

Bismarck (North Dakota) Tribune, Feburary 14, 1935. This was Dr. Werkgartner's 1935 case described in Jokl's book.

ND

20-Feb

1935

Adolf Wolfson

19

College Park

Maryland

USA

ND

Amateur

Frederick (Maryland) Post, February 22, 1935. Wolfson collapsed following a sparring match at the University of Maryland. He died the following day.

ND

23-Jan

1936

James Sallus

24

Peoria

Illinois

USA

ND

Amateur

Chicago Daily Tribune, January 24, 1936; Hammond (Indiana) Times, January 25, 1936. Sallus collapsed after a workout. The coroner was not sure if death was due to a blow or a heart condition. Sallus was known as "Slaughterhouse," because his training methods included punching on steer carcasses hanging in the Peoria stockyards.

Daniel Sheehan

6-Jan

1938

Tim Sheehan

21

Merthyr


Wales

Welter

Professional

"Merthyr boxers," http://www.merthyrhistory.150m.com/boxers.htm. The deceased, who was training for the middleweight championship of Wales, was in the gym, sparring with his brother. "I'm beat," he said, just before collapsing.

Gene Fowler

3-Aug

1938

Nethro Hendson

28

Pleasantville

New Jersey

USA

ND

Professional

New York Times, August 4, 1938. Cause of death was attributed to a heart condition.

Alvin Johnson

Nov/

1938

Victor Morgheim


Cheyenne

Wyoming

USA

ND

Professional

(Lincoln) Nebraska State Journal, November 23, 1938. Both men were soldiers of Company F, 8th US Infantry, at Fort Warren (now Warren Air Force Base).

Babe Richie

31-Jul

1939

Herman Tankersley

20

Dallas

Texas

USA

ND

Professional

El Paso (Texas) Herald Post, August 1, 1939. After sparring, Tankersley said he didn't feel well. He went to the showers, where he collapsed. Cause of death was attributed to a blood clot on the brain.

Samuel Fox

29-Nov

1940

William J. Armstrong

20

Enniskillen


Northern Ireland

ND

Amateur

(Dublin) Irish Times, November 30, 1940. The two men were constables in the Royal Ulster Constabulary, and they were sparring under supervision with 16-ounce gloves. Fox struck Armstrong in the face with a straight left, and Armstrong fell straight back into the arms of the referee, Sergeant Ashfield. Armstrong was taken to the hospital, where he died. Cause of death was extensive hemorrhage of the brain. The jury returned a verdict of accident.

Leroy Smith

23-Aug

1944

Thomas Schenck

34

ND

New Jersey

USA

Heavy

Professional

Lowell (Massachusetts) Sun, August 28, 1944. Schenck had been a sparring partner for Joe Louis and Two-Ton Tony Galento. Cause of death was brain injury. The death was remarked in the press mostly because it was the second professional boxing death in a month. Otherwise, said New York sportswriter Lawton Carver, Schenck's death "was more of an erasure than an obituary; he was wiped off the slate, and few in the boxing game mourn his loss. He was, you see, unknown."

Lundy

26-Mar

1944

John Claude Lundy

16

Joplin

Missouri

USA

ND

Amateur

Joplin (Missouri) Globe, March 29, 1944. Lundy was sparring with an older brother when he collapsed. Cause of death was listed as cerebral hemorrhage and gastric perforation.

ND

ND

1946

Annare Baisagale


ND


Australia

ND

Professional

Manuel Velazquez collection

ND

Jun/

1948

Leon "Ken" Kennedy


New York

New York

USA

Middle

Professional

Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, June 8, 1948, http://www.boxrec.com. Kennedy, a middleweight, was training in preparation for a job as a sparring partner for Joe Louis, who was then preparing for his defense against Jersey Joe Walcott. Several days before reporting to Louis's camp, Kennedy collapsed and died while jogging. Cause of death was listed as heart attack. Kennedy's last known match was in November 1946. During his career, he lost 25 out of 32 fights, 5 by knockout, and one of his wins was due his opponent being penalized for low blows.

Joseph Malone

8-Jun

1949

Evangelist Ramos

28

New York

New York

USA

Feather

Professional

New York Times, June 9, 1949. Ramos fell during a sparring session. He stood up, said he was all right, and then collapsed.

Bob "Bud" Goldstein

30-Dec

1949

Arthur Almeida

23

Providence

Rhode Island

USA

Feather

Professional

Lowell (Massachusetts) Sun, December 31, 1949. Cause of death was brain injury.

Harold Marlette

13-Nov

1949

Eugene Potter

23

Ann Arbor

Michigan

USA

ND

Amateur

Traverse City (Michigan) Record Eagle, November 15, 1949. Potter fell as he left the ring, and did not get up. He had sparred less than one round with Marlette, who was the boxing instructor.

ND

28-Nov

1949

Donald F. Eberhardt

22

Tucson

Arizona

USA

ND

Amateur

Pittsfield (Massachusetts) Berkshire Evening Eagle, December 1, 1949. Eberhardt was sparring at the University of Arizona's gym. Twelve-ounce gloves were being worn. He was knocked down. He failed to regain consciousness, and he died in hospital on December 1, 1949.

ND

23-Nov

1950

Abdul Djiniz


Paris


France

ND

Amateur

Manuel Velazquez collection

Wesley Morgan

22-Jan

1951

Neleigh Walker

27

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Light

Amateur

Lethbridge (Alberta) Herald, January 23, 1951; Chicago Daily Tribune, January 23, 1951; (Madison) Wisconsin State Journal, January 23, 1951. Walker was sparring with Morgan, who was aged 16. Afterwards, Walker walked to his corner, where he collapsed. A doctor was called, but Walker as pronounced dead at the scene. Walker's last bout had been as an amateur in Kansas City in 1942.

ND

5-Mar

1951

Richard Sinclair

23

San Francisco

California

USA

Middle

Amateur

Newport (Rhode Island) Daily News, March 6, 1951; Modesto (California) Bee and News-Herald, March 6, 1951; San Mateo (California) Times, March 6, 1951; Hayward (California) Daily Review, March 9, 1951. Sinclair had lost two fights in the past month to an opponent named Benito Rodriguez. Several days after his second fight with Rodriguez, Sinclair was in the gym, sparring. He stopped, saying that he didn't feel well, and then he collapsed. He died in St. Luke's Hospital six days later. Cause of death was hemorrhage of the brain.

ND

12-Mar

1951

Robert Marquebielle

22

ND


France

Welter

Amateur

Manuel Velazquez collection

Clifford Williams

10-Mar

1953

James Jones

22

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Light

Amateur

Ring Record Book 1953. Jones was sparring with a professional.

ND

27-Sep

1953

Johnson Hicks

21

Pendleton

Indiana

USA

ND

Amateur

Kokomo (Indiana) Tribune, September 29, 1953; Anderson (Indiana) Herald, September 30, 1953. This was a supervised match in a prison. Cause of death was ruptured spleen.

Fosi Schmidt

15-Feb

1954

Vaipou Ainu'u

35

ND

American Samoa

USA

Heavy

Amateur

Austin (Minnesota) Daily Herald, December 27, 1954. Ainu'u suffered head injuries when his head hit the ring floor.

ND

2-Apr

1954

Lawrence Crump Jr.

19

Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island

South Carolina

USA

ND

Amateur

Reno Evening Gazette, December 15, 1954. Crump complained of a headache after a boxing match at the Marine recruit training depot.

Johnny Summerlin

21-Jan

1956

Eddie Lee Walker

24

Detroit

Michigan

USA

Heavy

Professional

Philadelphia Inquirer, January 26, 1956; Charleston (West Virginia) Daily Mail, January 26, 1956; Troy (New York) Record, January 26, 1956. Walker collapsed at the end of three rounds of sparring. He died four days later without regaining consciousness.

Oliver L. "Ollie" Wilson

26-Oct

1956

Larry Branham

22

Hartford

Connecticut

USA

Heavy

Amateur

New York Times, October 28, 1956; Bridgeport (Connecticut) Telegram, November 30, 1956. Branham was a soldier stationed at the Army's Nike missile site HA-36, which was located near Portland, Connecticut. Wilson, who was 23 at the time of Branham's death, was a professional boxer whose eventual career record of 20-43-0 suggests that during the rest of his boxing career, he was brought in mostly to build younger fighters' knockout records. This is almost certainly the case at the end of his career, because his last two fights, in 1971 and 1972, were against George Foreman and Jimmy Ellis.

Ildelmaro Farias

26-Dec

1957

Andres Dominguez


Havana


Cuba

ND

Professional

Manuel Velazquez collection

ND

22-Feb

1957

Al-Yunes Elalfi


Alexandria


Egypt

Middle

Amateur

New York Times, February 24, 1957; Panama City (Florida) News-Herald, February 24, 1957.

ND

7-Jan

1958

Walter Sanders

23

Cleveland

Ohio

USA

Heavy

Amateur

Coshocton (Ohio) Tribune, January 8, 1958. Several years earlier, Sanders had boxed in Golden Gloves competition. He then went into the Army. Following his discharge, he resumed training. He had been working out for about 45 minutes when he suddenly collapsed and died.

ND

Feb/

1960

Terence Francis Sanders

17

Barnstaple

Devon

England

ND

Professional

London Times, February 20, 1960. Sanders had never participated in a tournament, only in sparring. Headgear and gloves had always been worn. He collapsed, and was taken to hospital. He died. Cause of death was swelling of the brain.

Bruno Spartaro

6-Jan

1960

Mohamed Beziane

20

Oran

Algeria

France

Light

Amateur

(Dublin) Irish Times, January 8, 1960. Beziane was training for the French amateur championships, the quarterfinals of which were scheduled for later that week in Tolouse. He was knocked down during some sparring. He got up, sparred one more round, and then collapsed. Brain surgery was done, but he died anyway. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain.

ND

20-Feb

1962

David Ross Buzzell

22

Arlington

Texas

USA

Welter

Professional

Dallas Morning News, February 24, 1962; Stroudsburg (Pennsyvlania) Daily Record, February 27, 1962. Although a former amateur champion, Buzzell had not boxed for several years. He decided to resume training. He was knocked down during a sparring match. He never regained consciousness. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage.

ND

29-Apr

1962

Douglas Klosterhuber

22

Green Bay

Wisconsin

USA

Light Heavy

Amateur

Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, April 30, 1962; Appleton (Wisconsin) Post-Crescent, April 30, 1962. Klosterhuber was participating in supervised boxing at the Wisconsin State Reformatory, which had organized formal boxing tournaments. Headgear and 16-ounce gloves were worn. After sparring, Klosterhuber said he did not feel well, so he was sent to the infirmary. He was dead within half an hour. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage, perhaps associated with congenital aneurysm. This was the second boxing fatality at the Wisconsin State Reformatory (Golubiff being the first), and it led to Wisconsin prison officials discontinuing boxing tournaments.

Tim Fish

6-Feb

1963

Omar Olive

18

Toledo

Ohio

USA

ND

Amateur

New York Times, April 8, 1963; Appleton (Wisconsin) Post-Crescent, February 8, 1963. Cause of death was brain injury. He was practicing for the Golden Gloves.

ND

11-Oct

1963

Carroll J. Belt

23

Camp Sukiran

Okinawa

USA

Welter (Lt Welter)

Amateur

Pacific Stars and Stripes, October 13, 1963; Pacific Stars and Stripes, October 18, 1963; Frederick (Maryland) Post, October 18, 1963; Washington Post, October 18, 1963. In early October 1963, Bill Champion and Emanuel Rivera organized a 19-member Marine Corps boxing team at Camp Sukiran, Okinawa. The idea was to start holding weekly contests with the Army. "Many of our fighters are fairly short on experience," Champion was quoted in Pacific Stars and Stripes as saying. "But where they lack experience they conceal it with willingness and guts." On October 11, 1963, Corporal Belt was knocked unconscious, and soon after, he died in hospital. Cause of death was subdural hematoma.

Marika Naivalu

6-May

1964

Anare Baisagale

24

Suva

Fiji

Australia

Heavy

Amateur

Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, May 7, 1964; Fresno (California) Bee Republican, May 7, 1964. The two boxers were cousins. Baisagale was knocked down by a right to the head. The death is attributed to Australia because Fiji did not become independent until 1970.

ND

20-Mar

1966

Dolphin Candelario

30

Wailuku

Hawaii

USA

ND

Professional

Honolulu Advertiser, March 21, 1966. After sparring with some young amateurs, Candelario felt dizzy, so he went home and went to bed. The next morning, he was admitted to the hospital, where he subsequently died.

ND

26-May

1966

Alejandro "Chico" Torres


Maracaibo


Venezuela

ND

Amateur

New York Times, May 29, 1966; Oakland Tribune, May 29, 1966. Cause of death listed as concussion.

ND

6-Nov

1969

Seiichi Ninomiya

20

Osaka


Japan

Middle

Professional

Manuel Velazquez collection. Ninomiya's last known bout was in Sapporo on March 30, 1969.

ND

22-Apr

1969

Mitsuya Oshiro

17

Naha

Okinawa

USA

ND

Amateur

Pacific Stars and Stripes, April 24, 1969. Headgear was not worn, and the coach was not present.

Pierre Fourie

1-Jun

1970

Winston Nkoyane

21

Johannesburg


South Africa

Middle

Professional

New York Times, July 3, 1970. Fourie was the South African middleweight champion. Nkoyane was a Fourie's sparring partner. One evening, after two hard rounds, Nkoyanea went home, looking fine. Next morning, he was dead. In 1973, Fourie became the first white South African to fight a black (Bob Foster) in front of a mixed race South African audience.

Gil King

19-Jan

1971

Eddie L. Pace

30

Los Angeles

California

USA

Welter

Professional

Oakland (California) Tribune, January 24, 1971; (Reno) Nevada State Journal, January 27, 1971. Pace, the former California welterweight champion, was sparring with the current state champion. He stepped back, looked at his manager in the corner, and then collapsed in the ring. Cause of death was thought to be cardiac.

ND

30-Apr

1971

Al Robinson

23

Oakland

California

USA

Light

Professional

Oakland (California) Tribune, May 4, 1971; Lima (Ohio) News, January 27, 1974; Oakland (California) Tribune, May 6, 1971; Oakland (California) Tribune, February 18, 1974. Robinson, an Olympic silver medalist in 1968, turned pro in June 1969. One day, after a 6-round sparring session, he said, "My head hurts," and then he collapsed. He remained in a coma until his death 33 months later. Surgery revealed an old blood clot that had recently resumed bleeding.

ND

31-Mar

1971

George Kennedy

45

Fresno

California

USA

Heavy

Professional

Fresno (California) Bee Republican, April 1, 1971. Kennedy had boxed professionally from 1946-1961, and after retiring from the ring, he had continued training for exercise. On this night, after sparring five rounds at the gym, he collapsed. He said he did not want to go to the hospital, so he was taken home. His wife promptly called an ambulance, and he was taken to the hospital, where he was dead on arrival. Cause of death was a heart attack.

ND

5-Aug

1971

William Markley

18

Portland

Maine

USA

ND

Professional

Oakland Tribune, August 6, 1971; (Reno) Nevada State Journal, August 10, 1971. Markley had turned pro just two months before. During sparring, he took a hard shot to the left ear. His right side began to shake. He sat down, and began having convulsions. He lost consciousness, and he died in hospital two days later.

ND

Oct/

1972

Frank Barry

20

Syracuse

New York

USA

Heavy

Amateur

Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, January 29, 1973. Barry collapsed at the gym in October 1972, and died in 1973. His most recent match had been against Tom Stewart on October 7. His amateur record was 14 wins, 11 losses. Cause of death was a blood clot in the brain.

ND

9-Mar

1976

Johnnie Harp

32

Syracuse

New York

USA

Welter

Professional

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, March 10, 1976; Social Security Death Index. Harp left the gym about 5 p.m. About 7:30 p.m., he began to complain of pain, and an ambulance was called. Harp was taken to the hospital, where he died about an hour later. Cause of death was a heart problem. Harp was reportedly aware of the problem, but told his friends "not to tell anyone, because maybe they won't let me fight."

ND

17-Mar

1976

Willie Ray Booker

28

Tucson

Arizona

USA

ND

Professional

Flagstaff (Arizona) Daily Sun, March 17, 1976. Booker had boxed under supervision during 1973 and 1974, and had recently returned to it. He collapsed at the start of the second round of a sparring session. He was pronounced dead at the hospital.

ND

17-May

1977

Richard C. Mull

19

US Military Academy West Point

New York

USA

Welter (145-lbs)

Amateur

Lima (Ohio) News, May 20, 1977; New York Times, May 21, 1977; "Taps," http://www.west-point.org/class/usma1980/taps.htm; R.W. Enzenauer, J.S. Montrey, R.J. Enzenauer, and W.M. Mauldin, "Boxing-related injuries in the US Army, 1980 through 1985," Journal of American Medical Association, March 10, 1989, 261:10, 1463-1466. Headgear was used, and 16-ounce gloves were being worn. Mull was knocked down twice in two rounds, so the intramural match was stopped. Fifteen minutes later, Mull collapsed and went into convulsions. He died three days later. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage. The Army's defense was cited in Military Medical Ethics, vol. 1, ed. by Thomas E. Beam, et al. (Falls Church, Virginia: Office of The Surgeon General, 2003), 253: "Before cadets get to the Academy, they know that they must take boxing. Because they are free to leave without penalty in their first year, they implicitly risk whatever physical injury may result. Thus, though boxers frequently hurt each others, such activities need not be stopped according to the harm principle" (as espoused by John Stuart Mill).

Gerald Herrera

18-Aug

1980

Victor "Vito" Romero

20

Albuquerque

New Mexico

USA

Feather

Professional

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, August 22, 1980; Pacific Stars and Stripes, August 24, 1980; Frank Deford, "An encounter to last an eternity," Sports Illustrated, 58:15 (April 11, 1983), 70. Romero was a professional boxer who was training for a contest scheduled for September 1980. Shortly after finishing sparring with Herrera, an amateur boxer, Romero went into a coma and began convulsing. The clot that killed him was attributed to a previous injury.

ND

20-Aug

1981

Rick Craney

36

Portland

Maine

USA

Welter

Professional

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, August 21, 1990; Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, August 28, 1990. Craney collapsed on a bench after sparring three rounds each with two separate training partners. The medical examiner attributed death to severe stenosing coronary artery arthrosclerosis.

ND

24-Sep

1984

John Kevin Gordon

18

Prince George

Maryland

USA

ND

Amateur

Washington Post, September 25, 1984; Washington Post, October 1, 1984; Washington Post, October 18, 1984; Washington Post, December 27, 1985. Gordon had a pre-existing heart murmur, but had received medical approval to box. Cause of death was cardiac.

Kenny Styles

29-Sep

1985

David "The Hammer" Harris

25

New York

New York

USA

Light heavy

Professional

Frederick (Maryland) Post, October 2, 1985. While sparring, Harris stepped backwards out of a clinch, fell through the ropes, and slid down the wall to the floor. An ambulance was called, and he was taken to the hospital, but he was pronounced dead in the emergency room. His most recent bout had been on April 25, 1985, and he was scheduled for another match later that week.

ND

23-Dec

1985

Hayes Singletary Jr.

19

Prince George

Maryland

USA

ND

Amateur

Silver Springs (Maryland) Journal, December 27, 1985; Washington Post, December 27, 1985. Singletary stepped from the ring after five rounds of sparring, talked with his trainer, and then collapsed. For about two weeks prior to his death, Singletary had been complaining of headaches. In addition, his employer reported that Singletary had been vomiting. His coaches, however, said that Singletary never told them about this -- his goal was to become a professional boxer, and he knew that his coaches wouldn't let him spar if they knew about his headaches. Cause of death was acute subdural hematoma.

Jeff Franklin

7-Jul

1988

Harold Watts

24

Reno

Nevada

USA

ND

Amateur

Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, July 11, 1988; Steve Kanigher, "Can boxing be made safer," Las Vegas Sun, October 23, 2005, http://www.lasvegassun.com/sunbin/stories/sports/2005/oct/23/519549564.html. Watts, an amateur, was sparring with Franklin, a professional featherweight. During the second round, Watts took a sharp hit to the chin. He was asked if he was okay. He said he was, so the sparring continued. At the end of the third round, Watts walked toward his corner, turned around, and collapsed. He died in hospital. Cause of death was a ruptured blood vessel in the brain.

ND

22-Feb

1990

Tyrone Smith

23

Fort Carson

Colorado

USA

Welter (147-lb)

Amateur

Pacific Stars and Stripes, February 25, 1990; Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, February 26, 1990; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, February 27, 1990. Smith was preparing for the USA National amateur boxing championships to be held in Colorado Springs later in the week. He was sitting on the ring surface getting his left glove removed, when he suddenly fell over unto the ring apron. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain. "I cannot emphasize enough that [this incident] is not related to boxing," said Dr. Robert Voy, director of sports medicine for USA Boxing.

ND

24-Feb

1990

Sean Lee

18

Colorado Springs

Colorado

USA

Welter (139-lb)

Amateur

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, February 26, 1990; Waterloo (Iowa) Courier, February 26, 1990; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, February 27, 1990. The venue was the USA National amateur boxing championships. The actual bouts did not begin until that evening. After attending (and passing) the pre-fight physical, Lee went to run some slow laps with another Louisiana boxer, Kenneth Pratt. During the run, Lee complained of chest pain, and then he collapsed. Cause of death was given as congenital coronary insufficiency (e.g., a difficult to detect, but comparatively common, cause of sudden death in young athletes).

ND

3-Sep

1991

Anthony McWilliams

20

Fort Huachuca

Arizona

USA

Fly

Amateur

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, September 24, 1991; Annapolis (Maryland) Capital, September 24, 1991. McWilliams, a member of an Army boxing team, was sparring with a lighter boxer. Both men were wearing headgear. McWilliams was in a coma 17 days before dying.

ND

1-Oct

1993

Nunu Puafisi

19

Reno

Nevada

USA

ND

Professional

Austin (Texas) American-Statesman, October 7, 1993. Puafisi went into a coma after sparring, and died October 2, 1993.

ND

21-Jan

1993

Michael J. Butler

21

Kelly Air Force Base

Texas

USA

ND

Amateur

Chicago Daily Herald, January 26, 1993; Annapolis (Maryland) Capital, January 26, 1993. Kelly was a member of an Eglin Air Force Base boxing team visiting Kelly Air Force Base for a tournament. After sparring, Kelly complained of dizziness and then collapsed. Cause of death was a blood clot.

ND

Dec/

1994

Jimmy Rodriguez

16

Waco

Texas

USA

ND

Amateur

"Good Morning," KWTX.com, Waco (Texas), December 18, 2006, http://www.kwtx.com/breakingnews/4939987.html. Rodriguez collapsed during sparring, and died on December 18, 1994. Cause of death was listed as repeated head trauma.

Chris King and Patrick Harris

19-Jan

1995

Nathan Wigfall

21

Washington

District of Columbia

USA

Heavy (180-lbs)

Amateur

Washington Post, January 24, 1995; Washington Post, February 17, 1995. Wigfall sat down after some 3-round sparring sessions with different opponents. He rolled over unconscious. He died the following day. Cause of death was a burst blood vessel in the brain.

ND

Mar/

1995

Marek Michalczuk


Varsovia


Poland

ND

Amateur

http://espndeportes.espn.go.com/news/story?id=391601

Anthony Pagan

30-Mar

1995

Jeffrey Foronda

25

Hilo

Hawaii

USA

ND

Amateur

Foronda v. Hawaii International Boxing Club, Supreme Court of the State of Hawaii, Civil No. 96-5123, http://www.hawaii.gov/jud/ica21703.htm; 96 Hawai'i, 25 P.3d 826. According to the court records, "Decedent was hit, sat temporarily on the second rope from the bottom, some 27 inches from the padded mat, sagged toward the floor, and leaned sideways, hitting his head, while wearing regulation protective headgear, on the padded apron just outside the rope." The court ruled that the risk of falling was an inherent risk of sport, and that, while the gym did not have all the latest safety equipment, there was insufficient evidence to demonstrate defective equipment, supervision, or coaching.

Carlos

28-Jul

1996

Reginaldo Tavares da Silva

18

San Goncalo


Brazil

ND

Amateur

New Bedford (Massachusetts) Standard Times, July 1996, http://www.standardtimes.com/daily/07-96/07-30-96/d05sp147.htm; Warrendale (Pennsylvania) North Hills News Record, July 30, 1996. After the fight, da Silva said his stomach hurt. He went to the hospital, where he died during surgery. Cause of death was severe internal bleeding.

ND

7-Feb

1997

Michael J. Cecil

19

Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island

South Carolina

USA

ND

Amateur

Myrtle Beach (South Carolina) Sun, May 21, 1997, http://www.healthwatcher.net/Boxing/mb970521marine.html. See also R. T. Ross and M.G. Ochsner, Jr., "Acute intracranial boxing-related injuries in U.S. Marine Corps recruits: report of two cases," Military Medicine, January 1999, 164:1, 68-70. Cecil died during "combat hitting training," the first (and reportedly only) of approximately 120,000 recruits to do so. Nonetheless, "combat hitting training" was stopped as a result.

ND

20-Feb

1999

K. Karunakaran


Imphal


India

ND

Amateur

Tribune of India, February 21, 1999, http://www.tribuneindia.com/99feb21/sports.htm#12. Karanukaran died of cardiac arrest while jogging. He was scheduled for a bout that afternoon.

Robert Alaniz

9-May

2000

Sergio Ariel Soto

26

Buenos Aires


Argentina

ND

Professional

"Murio el Pugilista Sergio Soto," La Nacionline, October 19, 2000, http://www.lanacion.com.ar/00/10/19/d32.htm

Emiliano Valdez

11-Jan

2000

Elijah Fenwick

18

Pahokee

Florida

USA

Welter

Amateur

"Fighting to the death," Palm Beach Post, April 16, 2000, http://www.coxnews.com/boc/metro/sports.html#. Fenwick was an amateur sparring with a pro (Valdez) and another fighter. Twelve days later, Valdez was knocked unconscious and subsequently died of injuries. Neither Valdez nor Fenwick had life or medical insurance, because under Florida boxing law, boxers were not required to have insurance.

ND

23-Apr

2002

Justin Chino

11

Milan

New Mexico

USA

ND

Amateur

Albuquerque Journal, April 25, 2002; Albuquerque Journal, April 26, 2002. Chino was running with his coach when he collapsed and died. He had been training for about a month, and his first match was scheduled to take place the following Saturday.

ND

2-Jul

2003

Brandon Nicholes Reeves

20

Longview

Texas

USA

Middle

Amateur

John Lynch, "Father of two dies after boxing practice," Longview (Texas) News-Journal, July 15, 2003; personal communication with Josephine Bray. The date given is date of death. While training some weeks before his death, Reeves took a heavy blow to his head. Afterwards, he began complaining of blurred vision and an inability to concentrate. At the time, this was attributed to allergies, but the cause of death was brain hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed that Reeves was genetically disposed toward aneurism. Weight is approximate, as it varied between 150 and 170 pounds.

Munyagwa

10-Sep

2003

Godfrey Sekabira

22

Kampala


Uganda

Middle (Jr Middle)

Amateur

Nicholas Kajoba, "Scoul boxer dies," New Vision, September 12, 2003, http://allafrica.com/stories/200309120166.html; Moses Mugalu, "Malaria hits six Bombers," New Vision, September 17, 2003, http://allafrica.com/stories/200309170078.html. The deceased was the brother of professional boxer James Lubwama. Cause of death was not known, but brain injury was suspected.

ND

22-Jan

2004

Kenichi Hashimoto

16

Higashimatsuyama


Japan

ND

Amateur

"Schoolboy boxer killed in ring," Mainichi Shimbun, January 25, 2004, http://mdn.mainichi.co.jp/news/archive/200401/25/20040125p2a00m0dm007002c.html. Following three 3-minute rounds of sparring, Hashimoto bowed to his opponent, and then collapsed. He subsequently died of brain injuries.

ND

2-Feb

2006

Richard Hermance Jr.

28

Saratoga Springs

New York

USA

ND

Amateur

Jim Kinney, "Boxer dies while sparring," (Saratoga, New York) Saratogian http://www.saratogian.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=16065254&BRD=1169&PAG=461&dept_id=17708&rfi=6 February 4, 2006; Matt Leon, "Coroner: Boxer's death linked to blow to head," Glens Falls (New York) Post Star, http://www.poststar.com/story.asp?storyid=209670, February 6, 2006; Curtis Schick, "Boxer died from brain hemorrhage," Capital News 9, http://www.capitalnews9.com/content/your_news/saratoga/default.asp?ArID=167577, February 7, 2006. Hermance was training for his first amateur bout, scheduled for March 5, 2006. He complained of dizziness, collapsed in the locker room, and died in hospital. Cause of death was subarachnoid hemorrhage.

ND

16-Feb

2006

Shawn Benjamin

30

Fort Benning

Georgia

USA

ND

Amateur

Michelle Tan, "Fall while boxing kills Benning soldier," Army Times, February 22, 2006, http://www.armytimes.com/story.php?f=1-292925-1550629.php; FirstCoastNews, "Warrant officer dies from boxing injury," Firstcoastnews.com, February 21, 2006, http://www.firstcoastnews.com/news/georgia/news-article.aspx?storyid=52250; "Shawn R. Benjamin," Dothan (Alabama) Eagle, http://www.legacy.com/DothanEagle/DeathNotices.asp?Page=LifeStory&PersonId=16822427. While participating in a hand-to-hand instructor training course, Benjamin was struck in the head. He fell, and he died in the hospital two days later. Headgear and boxing gloves were being worn. This was reportedly the first death in the US Army's hand-to-hand instructor's course, which to date had trained about 11,000 students.


Table 4: Amateur ring deaths, 1890 to present


Survivor

Day/Mo

Year

Res

Rd

Deceased

Age

City

Counth/State

Country

Weight

Source/Remarks

Thomas Levitt

4-Feb

1890

KO

3

John William Williams

20

London

London

England

Bantam (8 stone 6)

London Times, February 10, 1890; (Glasgow) Scotsman, February 10, 1890. Williams was a member of the Stanhope Amateur Athletic Club, and 8-ounce gloves were being worn. During this fight, Williams was hit repeatedly, but according to the papers, not especially hard. In any case, he stepped back, and then collapsed unconscious. He was rubbed down with vinegar and left to wake up on his own. After about an hour, he still was not conscious. Consequently, he was wrapped in blankets and taken to the hospital, where he died several hours later. Cause of death was due to the rupture of small blood vessels in the brain. Williams had been knocked unconscious during December 1899.

Frank W. McConnico

25-Sep

1890

WKO

13

Warren Taliaferro

15

Lexington

Virginia

USA

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Sentinel, September 26, 1890; Dallas Morning News, September 26, 1890. The pugilists were cadets at Virginia Military Academy. They had a dispute, and they decided to settle it with a prize fight. The fight lasted about half an hour. McConnico was unconscious at the end of the fight, and Taliferro went to his room with his nose bleeding. He went to sleep and never awoke. McConnico afterwards attempted suicide, so was placed in jail for his own protection.

William Kemper

31-Mar

1896

KO

1

John Lipke

40

Otis

Indiana

USA

ND

Los Angeles Times, April 2, 1896; Fort Wayne (Indiana) Weekly Sentinel, April 8, 1896; Ancestry.com. Indiana Deaths, 1882-1920 [database on-line]. Kemper struck Lipke in the abdomen. Lipke collapsed and he died the following day.

Arthur Bradley

4-Apr

1896

KO


Richard Ingram


Haverhill

Massachusetts

USA

ND

Los Angeles Times, April 5, 1896. Both men were factory workers. They decided to see who was the better boxer. After about 30 minutes, Ingram was struck on the right jaw and collapsed. He subsequently died at his brother’s house.

Willie Glantz

2-Feb

1898

KO

4

Carl Lindback

18

West Bend

Wisconsin

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, February 4, 1898; Waterloo (Iowa) Daily Reporter, February 5, 1898; Albert Lea (Minnesota) Freeborn County Standard, February 9, 1898. The two youths were in high school, and decided to settle a quarrel with a gloved match consisting of ten 2-minute rounds. In the fourth round, Lindback was knocked down by a blow to the face. He did not get up, and was dead within minutes. Cause of death was listed as the effects of a blow to the heart.

Carl Conner

25-Mar

1899

KO


Charles McCoy

17

Kokomo

Indiana

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, March 27, 1899; Mansfield (Ohio) News, March 27, 1899; New York Sun, April 2, 1899; National Police Gazette, April 15, 1899. The youths were boxing bareknuckle in front of McCoy’s father’s store. McCoy was struck over the heart, and his heart literally burst. Explained the always-colorful Police Gazette, the blow “caused all the blood from the vital organ to pour out into the abdominal cavity. Death was almost instantaneous.” Autopsy revealed that McCoy had an enlarged heart.

Bert Whidden

18-Mar

1900

KO

8

Frank Cass

18

Santa Cruz

California

USA

Middle

San Francisco Chronicle, March 19, 1900. The pair fought three rounds at the YMCA in the morning, and then went to Twin Lakes for a finish match. Cass, the deceased, weighed about 170, while Whidden weighed about 150. Cass was ahead the first three rounds. After that, Whidden started getting the better of Cass. In the eighth round, Whidden knocked Cass down. When Cass stood up, Whidden knocked him down again, and this time, he did not get up. A physician was called, but Cass died before he arrived. Whidden was arrested, then released on his own recognizance.

Thomas Nelson

30-Mar

1900

KO

2

Thomas McGregor

16

New York

New York

USA

ND

New York Times, April 1, 1900. McGregor took a heavy blow to the face. He fell to the ground, blood streaming from his nose. The bleeding would not stop, so after about an hour, he was taken home and put to bed. A doctor was called, and after about four hours, the bleeding stopped. McGregor died the following morning.

Neil McCallum

15-May

1900

KO


Will Stowe

17

Batesville

Indiana

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, May 17, 1900; Fort Wayne (Indiana) News, May 17, 1900. According to the Chicago paper, “While engaged in a friendly sparring match… Will Stowe, aged 17, received a blow near the heart. He stepped back, and while in the act of raising his hands to strike, fell dead.”

ND

17-May

1900

KO


Isaac C. Thomas

41

Lexington

Kentucky

USA

ND

(Rockcastle County, Kentucky) Mount Vernon Signal, May 25, 1900, http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/ky/ky-footsteps/1999a/v01-497.txt; Ancestry.com. Kentucky Death Records, 1852-1953 [database on-line]. Thomas, a married African American man, was sparring with a friend. He was hit in the jaw, and lay comatose two days before dying. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

Joseph Kelly (Young Kelly)

12-Dec

1900

KO

2

Edward Sanford (Frank Barr)

19

New York

New York

USA

ND

New York World, December 24, 1900; Frederick (Maryland) News, December 24, 1900; North Adams (Massachusetts) Transcript, December 24, 1900. On the first night of the tournament, Sanford was knocked out. Then it was determined that his opponent was a professional, so he advanced to the quarter-finals. Sanford won a 4-round decision, and so advanced to the finals. He was knocked down in the first round, and was so clearly overmatched in the second round that the fight was stopped. Sanford was sent to the hospital, where he died. Cause of death was listed as skull fracture.

Charles Johnson

8-Jul

1905

KO

8

Raphael Cohen


USS Yankee

Off Monte Christi

USA (At sea)

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Sentinel, August 16, 1905; Van Wert (Ohio) Daily Bulletin, August 16, 1905; Galveston (Texas) Daily News, August 19, 1905; Letter dated July 15, 1905, from sailor Frank Hoster of USS Olympia to his mother, advertised on E-bay on October 20, 2005. Cohen was a coal passer from USS Yankee, while Johnson was a coal passer on USS Olympia. Cohen died in sick bay early the next morning. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage on the left side of the brain. The following passage comes from Hoster’s letter: “We have been holding prize fights aboard this Ship but I don’t think we will have any more on account of one of the Yankee’s crew getting killed. The fellows name was Cohen and lived near the Bowery in New York City. The fight was for a knock out and winner take all the money. The lad who killed him is a negro and is one of this ship’s crew. The fight was about even untill the eighth round when Johnson the negro gave him a left-swing and sent him to the mat and just about the finishing of the count Cohen got on his feet and Johnson caught him another with his right and knocked him to the mat never to rise any more. He was carried to the sick bay and died at 12 O’clock that night. We are making a purse for his Mother and have got about One Thousand Dollars so far. Johnson is getting a General Court Martial but it will not amount to anything.” Hoster was correct about the court-martial, whose verdict was that Cohen died in line of duty. According to the Daily News article, “There is hardly a ship in the navy with a sufficiently large crew which does not witness two or three of these bouts each week... They are usually held on the forward deck, and the commissioned officers, if they are present, are there more as tacitly invited guests than in any other capacity.”

Minor Meriweather Jr.

7-Nov

1905

KO


James R. Branch

23

Annapolis

Maryland

USA

ND

Oakland Tribune, November 7, 1905; Dallas Morning News, November 9, 1905; Washington Post, November 9, 1905; Phoenix (Arizona) Republican, December 13, 1905. The boxers were midshipmen at the US Naval Academy. Although run like a prizefight, it was not an officially sanctioned bout, so the cadet officers who participated were reduced in grade.

Charles Smith

9-Sep

1906

KO


Con Griffin


Little Rock

Arkansas

USA

ND

Washington Post, December 23, 1906; Trenton (New Jersey) Evening Times, January 4, 1907.

John McGrath

30-Oct

1906

KO


John Bergin


New York

New York

USA

ND

Washington Post, December 23, 1906; Oakland Tribune, January 27, 1907

Robert Lander

29-Mar

1906

TKO

2

Shenstone Wyer

20

Toronto

Ontario

Canada

Bantam

Toronto Globe, March 30, 1906; Toronto Globe, April 4, 1906. Wyer had just arrived in Canada from England, and had never boxed in a tournament before. Although he weighed about 105 pounds, he was fighting in the bantamweight division. He collapsed in the dressing room after the fight. An ambulance came to take him to the hospital, but because the injury occurred during the first bout of the night, few people in the audience were aware of it. Wyer died in hospital about four hours later. Autopsy revealed no brain injury, so the coroner’s jury ruled cause of death to be apoplexy caused by excitement.

Brown

23-Jan

1907

KO


John Mason


Indianapolis

Indiana

USA

ND

Hammond (Indiana) Lake County Times, February 7, 1907. The venue was St. Bartholomew’s Episcopal Church; Mason was from a boxing club associated with St. Bartholomew’s, while Brown was from a club associated with St. George’s Episcopal Church. Mason died in hospital, and his death led to restrictions on boxing in church athletic leagues. (New York Times, May 5, 1907.)

Charles Wolf

17-Mar

1908

KO

1

Willis Robinson

19

Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Oakland Tribune, March 18, 1908; Fort Wayne (Indiana) Sentinel, March 18, 1908; Van Wert (Ohio) Daily Bulletin, March 18, 1908. Less than a minute into the match, Robinson was struck over the heart. He collapsed in the ring, and he died while in the police vehicle transporting him to the hospital.

Johnny Hogan

17-Jun

1908

KO

3

Peter Hagen


Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Journal Gazette, June 18, 1908; Chicago Daily Tribune, June 18, 1908; Washington Post, June 19, 1908. Hagen was a Marine stationed at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, while Hogan was a professional from the city. The bout took place on board the battleship Mississippi. Hagen was hit hard, and died within a few minutes of being counted out. Death was attributed to heart failure.

Benjamin Barnett (Fred Stewart)

18-Dec

1908

KO

2

James Curran (Mickey Henry)

18

Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Washington Post, December 19, 1908; Titusville (Pennsylvania) Morning Herald, December 22, 1908. Barnett dominated the second round, and in the third, Curran was knocked down by a right to the chin. Curran died while en route to the hospital. Cause of death was hemorrhage of the brain. No physical exam was conducted prior to the fight.

Britton Stacey

15-Jul

1909

KO


Earl Terry

20

Hillsboro

Texas

USA

ND

Galveston (Texas) Daily News, July 16, 1909. The two men were boxing in a neighbor’s yard. Terry was struck on the left side of the body. He collapsed, and died.

David W. Williams

31-Jul

1909

KO

6

Harrison H. Foster


Provincetown

Massachusetts

USA

ND

New York Times, August 2, 1909; Boston Daily Globe, August 2, 1909; Racine (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, August 19, 1909; Washington Post, August 22, 1909; Washington Post, August 26, 1909. The boxers were African American messmen serving aboard USS Vermont. The two men had a grudge, so upon reaching port, they were allowed to box one another during a scheduled shipboard smoker. The morning after the bout, Foster complained of pain, so he was taken to sick bay, where he died. After a court-martial cleared Williams of manslaughter charges, he was turned over to Georgia civil authorities, who wanted him on charges of aggravated assault pre-existing his enlistment in the Navy.

Happy Brown

16-Jan

1910

KO


Joseph Myers


Chillicothe

Ohio

USA

ND

Van Wert (Ohio) Daily Bulletin, January 17, 1910. The two men were soldiers in the Ohio National Guard, sparring at the Armory.

Willis Elder

10-Mar

1910

KO

2

John V. Heflin

23

Presidio of Monterey

California

USA

ND

Oelwein (Iowa) Daily Register. Both men were privates in the Coast Artillery, and Heflin died at the Presidio hospital on March 21. Cause of death was hemorrhage of the brain.

Frank Keizer

5-Apr

1910

KO

7

Gilbert Trehou

18

Passaic

New Jersey

USA

ND

Washington Post, April 9, 1910; Boston Globe, April 9, 1910; New York Times, May 1, 1910. The bout was a grudge match supervised by the high school principal. Ropes were strung and a referee and timekeeper were used. Trehou was struck in solar plexus but died of brain injuries.

Thomas Holmes

19-Nov

1912

KO

1

Frederick Merten

16

New York

New York

USA

ND

Albert Lea (Minnesota) Evening Tribune, November 21, 1912; Oakland Tribune, November 21, 1912. The boxers were walking to the center of the ring to shake hands (an innovation formally introduced around 1908), when Merten collapsed. Cause of death was listed as heart failure induced by excitement.

Clarence Salmon

14-Feb

1915

KO


A. V. Brown


Navy Yard Puget Sound, Bremerton

Washington

USA

ND

Reno Evening Gazette, February 13, 1915; Fort Wayne (Indiana) News, February 16, 1915. Brown collapsed after being struck on the left ear. Both boxers were sailors, and the match took place on board USS West Virginia.

Arthur Stebbins

13-Apr

1915

KO


George Brogan

22

Brooklyn

New York

USA

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Sentinel, April 16, 1915; Newark (Ohio) April 16, 1915; New York Times, April 17, 1915. Brogan was knocked down by a blow to the heart. He did not get up, and he died in hospital two days later. Cause of death listed as hemorrhage of the brain.

R. N. Lewis

12-Feb

1915

TKO

1

Archibald Leonard Foreman

16

Gisborne


New Zealand

Middle

Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, February 13, 1915; Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, February 16, 1915; Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, February 18, 1915. Foreman quit in the first round. While walking to the dressing room, he collapsed. Earlier in the evening, he had won the middleweight contest, and now, a little later, he was fighting in the heavyweight division. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain.

ND

28-May

1917

KO

2

Hugh Barrie


Southampton

Hampshire

England

ND

(Glasgow) Scotsman, June 1, 1917. Barrie was participating in a military tournament. He was knocked down, and the back of his head reportedly hit the flooring. Death was due to a ruptured blood vessel in the brain.

ND

6-Nov

1917

KO


Neal Deaton

19

Submarine Base San Pedro

California

USA

ND

U.S. Navy, Officers and Enlisted Men of the United States Navy Who Lost Their Lives during the World War, from April 6, 1917 to November 11, 1918 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1920), 222. “Died after having engaged in bout of boxing.”

Neil Mackinnon

16-Mar

1918

KO


Frank Ward

19

Minneapolis

Minnesota

USA

ND

Racine (Wisconsin) Journal-News, March 18, 1918. The venue was a Knights of Columbus hall. Cause of death was attributed to dilation of the heart.

ND

3-Aug

1918

KO

1

Gerald Yowdall


London

London

England

ND

News of the World, August 8, 1918, http://www.uk.olivesoftware.com/archive/skins/bl/navigator.asp. Yowdall, of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, received a blow on the mouth. He collapsed and subsequently died. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

Private Garland

4-Nov

1918

KO


Gunner Hennessey


London

London

England

ND

Daily News, November 4, 1918, http://www.uk.olivesoftware.com/archive/skins/bl/navigator.asp. Following the knockout, Hennessey never regained consciousness, and he died the following day in hospital.

James McDonald

4-Aug

1919

KO

3

James Keay


Dunedin


New Zealand

ND

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

George S. Lewis

25-Nov

1919

KO

3

Alfred Jerome Katz

17

Boonville

Missouri

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, November 26, 1919; (Lincoln, Nebraska) Evening State Journal and Lincoln Daily News, November 28, 1919. The youths were students at Kemper Military School (closed 2002). The match was sanctioned (and supervised) by school officials, for the purpose of resolving a grudge; evidently, Lewis, aged 16, had called the older youth “Pussy” Katz. Katz was larger, and did well enough during the first two rounds that Lewis wanted to stop at the end of the second. However, Katz wanted to continue, so the match was allowed to continue into the third round specified for amateur bouts. At the start of the third, before any blows were struck, Katz suddenly fell to the ground. He was pronounced dead 12 minutes later. Cause of death was attributed to acute dilation of the right ventricle of the heart.

ND

20-Nov

1920

KO


Donald R. Hendrick

23

Burlington

Vermont

USA

ND

Bridgeport (Connecticut) Telegram, November 22, 1920. Hendrick was a freshman at the University of Vermont. He was boxing in the University gym. He died of injuries the following morning.

Harold Myers

4-Aug

1921

KO


Earl Welch

20

Columbus

Ohio

USA

ND

Indianapolis Star, August 6, 1921; Lima (Ohio) News, August 6, 1921; Portsmouth (Ohio) Daily Times, August 8, 1921. Welsh was knocked to the floor and did not get up. He died two days later. Cause of death was listed as fractured skull.

Manny Stosh

ND

1921

KO


Karl Rayle


ND


New Zealand

ND

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

Joe Ritchie

5-Jan

1922

KO


George Bliss

24

Wilkes-Barre

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Journal-Gazette, January 13, 1922; Chicago Daily Tribune, January 7, 1922, Chicago Daily Tribune, January 13, 1922; Titusville (Pennsylvania) Herald, January 13, 1922. Cause of death was a kidney punch. The coroner’s jury, which included two women, recommended that physicians examine all boxers before they entered the ring.

Whitten Windham

ND

1922

KO


William Curtis McAdams

35

Jasper

Alabama

USA

ND

Ancestry.com. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 [database on-line]; McAdams v. Windham, 208. Ala. 492. The two men were sparring bare-knuckle, as they had often done in the past. McAdams was struck hard over the heart. He staggered back, and was caught by a spectator, a man named Waltrop. He was then laid on the floor, where he died within minutes. Cause of death was ruled to be the blow over the heart. The widow charged the survivor with assault, and the case ended up in the state supreme court. The case is McAdams v. Windham, 208 Ala. 492, 94 So. 742, 30 A.L.R. 194, Nov. 30, 1922. In its finding on behalf of Windham, the Alabama Supreme Court noted that “it is a general rule of law that a blow thus inflicted in a friendly, mutual combat -- a mere sporting contest -- is not unlawfully inflicted.” Instead, so long as no one was guilty of reckless or negligent conduct, “participants in a violent game have assumed the risk ordinarily incident to their sport.”

ND

Sep/

1923

KO


John T. Holly

27

Newport

Rhode Island

USA

ND

Boston Post, September 24, 1923; 1920; Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Census Place: Newport Ward 2, Newport, Rhode Island; Roll: T625_1670; Page: 13A; Enumeration District: 45; Image: 663. Holly, a Marine sergeant stationed at the Naval Torpedo Station, died after being punched above the heart.

Harald Nielsen

Nov/

1923

KO


W. V. Evans


Copenhagen


Denmark

Light

(Glasgow) Scotsman, November 7, 1923. Cause of death was hemorrhage of the brain.

H.B. Fetzer

30-Jan

1923

KO

3

Billy C. Zelley

18

Montgomery

Alabama

USA

ND

Bellingham (Washington) Herald, January 31, 1923. Cause of death listed as acute dilation of heart.

Michael Molinari

22-Apr

1924

KO

1

Jimmy Picardi

21

Boston

Massachusetts

USA

Bantam

New York Times, April 21, 1924; Fort William (Ontario) Daily Times-Journal, April 24, 1924; Port Arthur (Ontario) Daily News-Chronicle, April 23, 1924; Syracuse (New York) Herald, April 24, 1924. Cause of death was listed as concussion of the brain. Piccardi had been knocked down once already in the match.

Joe Falks

ND

1924

KO


Joe Stevenson


ND


New Zealand

ND

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

Carl Hansen

5-Feb

1925

KO

2

Stanton R. Stever

19

Syracuse

New York

USA

Welter

Syracuse (New York) Herald, February 6, 1925; Olean (New York) Evening Herald, February 6, 1925; New York Times, February 6, 1925. Stever, a sophomore, was participating in a match at the Syracuse University gym to determine who would represent Syracuse during a forthcoming varsity contest with US Naval Academy. Twelve-ounce gloves were being worn. During the second round, Stever appeared winded, and Hansen knocked him down with a solid blow to the head. Stever did not get up, and he did not regain consciousness. Cause of death was listed as hemorrhage on the surface of the brain imposed upon an abscess of the sinus. Stever had a history of surgeries for sinus conditions, and it was the second time in two weeks that Hansen had knocked him out.

Carlo Johnston

23-Nov

1926

KO

1

Jens Sorensen

33

New York

New York

USA

Welter

New York Times, November 24, 1926. Sorenson collapsed in the ring before any blows were struck. Cause of death was listed as heart attack.

Joe Iovano

24-Jan

1927

KO


Leo Maham

17

Braddock

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Oakland Tribune, January 25, 1927; New York Times, January 26, 1927. Maham was knocked down by a blow to the stomach. Cause of death was listed as fractured skull, probably sustained during the fall.

Earl Dunlap

9-May

1927

KO


John Wilson

17

Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

New York Times, May 10, 1927. Wilson was knocked down by a blow to the chin and failed to get up.

Kenneth O’Ben

27-Apr

1927

TKO


Donald Hallenbeck

19

Lansing

Michigan

USA

Feather

Syracuse (New York) Herald, April 28, 1927. Hallenbeck had won a semi-final match earlier that night. During the finals, he was hit hard, and the referee stopped the fight. Hallenbeck died in hospital a few hours later.

Joseph Michallick

11-Apr

1928

KO

3

Julius Rubin (Julius Yale)

19

Brooklyn

New York

USA

ND

New York Times, April 13, 1928, 16. Rubin, a former Golden Gloves champion, was ahead on points when he was knocked down by a blow to the jaw. He was carried to the dressing room. He did not recover, so he was taken to hospital, where he died the following morning. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

ND

1928

KO


Anonymous soldier


Pretoria


South Africa

ND

Ernst Jokl, Medical Aspect of Boxing, 1941. The fight took place at the barracks at Roberts Heights (later Voortrekkerhoogte, today Thaba-Tswane).

Tommy Carroll

21-Mar

1928

Ldec

4

Horace Aliff Ferguson

17

Bridgeport

Connecticut

USA

ND

New York Times, March 25, 1928; New York Times, March 26, 1928; Bridgeport (Connecticut) Telegram, March 29, 1928. Between the third and fourth rounds, Ferguson complained of feeling stiff on one side. He did not do well in the fourth, and right after the fight, he collapsed. He was taken to the hospital, where he soon died. The fight took place at a Redmen’s hall. An investigation revealed that “amateur” boxers usually were paid about a dollar per round, and the subsequent notoriety caused the Elks, Redmen, and similar fraternal organizations to lose AAU sanctions for their bouts.

Chuck Agnew

19-Jan

1929

KO


William Paul


Ottawa

Ontario

Canada

ND

Albert Lea (Minnesota) Evening Tribune, January 21, 1929. The bout took place at the Ottawa YMCA. Paul was knocked down, and struck his head. He was taken to hospital, where he died.

Myron Chenburg

3-Feb

1930

KO


Parnell Ballinger

19

Denver

Colorado

USA

ND

Decatur (Illinois) Herald, February 6, 1930.

William Struble

22-Mar

1930

KO

3

Oliver Horne

22

Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

USA

Middle

New York Times, March 30, 1930; Bismarck (North Dakota) Tribune, March 31, 1930; Dallas Morning News, April 1, 1930; Chicago Daily Tribune, April 3, 1930; Pete Ehrmann, “Boxing’s Knute Rockne,” The Sweet Science, October 26, 2005, http://www.thesweetscience.com/boxing-article/2787/boxing-knute-rockne. While falling, Horne’s head struck Struble’s knee. Horne died five days later. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage complicated by pneumonia. Horne was the former captain of the University of Pennsylvania boxing team.

Jack Williams

10-Apr

1930

KO

3

David Norway

18

Everett

Washington

USA

Middle (165-lb)

San Francisco Chronicle, April 11, 1930; Ames (Iowa) Daily Tribune-Times, April 11, 1930; Wisconsin Rapids (Wisconsin) Daily Tribune, April 11, 1930; Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Census Place: Everett, Snohomish, Washington; Roll: T625_1938; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 159; Image: 1049. The venue was the National Guard armory. Both boxers were high school students, and rounds were two minutes in duration. While sitting in his corner between the second and third rounds, Norway slid off his stool unto the floor, where he died. Cause of death was attributed to heart attack.

Jimmy Sloan

2-Aug

1930

KO


Percy Rush


Palmerston North


New Zealand

ND

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

Walter Thomas

7-Nov

1930

KO

3

George Nelson Bizzard (Billy Nelson)

20

Brockton

Massachusetts

USA

Welter (147-lb)

Lowell (Massachusetts) Sun, November 8, 1930; Olean (New York) Evening Times, November 8, 1930; Syracuse (New York) Herald, November 9, 1930. Although Bizzard had won his two previous bouts by knockout, he was losing this one on points when he collapsed in the ring. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

11-Nov

1931

KO


Harry Schwartz

19

Milwaukee

Wisconsin

USA

Middle

Sheboygan (Wisconsin) Press, November 13, 1931. Cause of death was intercranial hemorrhage.

Jack Richards

14-May

1931

Wdec

4

Johnny Paladin

17

St. Louis

Missouri

USA

Light

New York Times, May 16, 1931; Syracuse (New York) Herald, May 16, 1931. The bout was part of a benefit for Kardinski. On the way home, Paladin complained of a headache. During the night, his mother woke to hear him moaning, so she called an ambulance. He died before the ambulance arrived.

Jerry White

30-Sep

1931

WTKO

3

Clyde Kaufman

20

Hollister

California

USA

ND

Oakland Tribune, October 3, 1931. Kaufman was easily winning the bout, so the referee stopped it in the third. In the dressing room, Kaufman complained of feeling faint, so he went outside to get some air. Ten minutes later, he was found unconscious, next to his car. He was taken home, and then to the hospital. He was diagnosed with concussion of the brain, and he died the following morning.

ND

29-Jan

1932

KO

3

Innis R. Calman

21

Atlanta

Georgia

USA

ND

Dothan (Alabama) Eagle, January 29, 1932; Salt Lake City (Utah) Tribune, January 30, 1932. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

Robert E. Crockett

29-Feb

1932

KO

3

Emil Dawson

21

Bangor

Maine

USA

ND

Chester (Pennsylvania) Times, March 1, 1932; Connellsville (Pennsylvania) Daily Courier, March 2, 1932; Portsmouth (Maine) Herald, March 2, 1932. Dawson was participating in an intramural boxing match at the University of Maine. After being hit, he fell face first. He died in hospital the following day. Cause of death was listed as fractured skull.

Al Carey

4-Sep

1932

KO

3

Albert M. Potter


Folsom Prison

California

USA

ND

Albert Lea (Minnesota) Evening Tribune, September 5, 1932; Salt Lake City (Utah) Tribune, September 6, 1932. The boxers were convicts participating in a Labor Day boxing show. Rounds were two minutes in length. Potter was knocked out by a blow to the chin. He died two hours later.

Toby Allen

11-Oct

1932

KO


Gen Wilson


Wellington


New Zealand

ND

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

Paul Byrne

18-Jan

1932

Ldec

3

Casey Millsaps

18

Chico

California

USA

Heavy (181-lb)

Washington Post, January 21, 1932; Modesto (California) News-Herald, January 21, 1932; Chico State Teacher’s College Wildcat, January 22, 1932. After the fight, during which there were no knockdowns or visibly hard blows, Millsaps walked to the dressing room, where he collapsed. He died the following morning without ever regaining consciousness. Cause of death was a ruptured artery on the left side of his brain. Millsaps had a history of basal skull fracture, in 1921. Said the student paper: “According to Dr. [D.H.] Moulton it would take considerable time for the blood from this small artery to ooze out enough blood to press against the brain and cause death. He stated that there was little or no chance that the artery was ruptured in football but stated that there was a chance of such a thing happening in almost any sport activity.”

William Laurence

11-Mar

1932

Ndec

3

David C. May

21

Portland

Oregon

USA

ND

Portland Oregonian, March 12, 1932. May was the heavier (and older) of the two boxers; Laurence was just 15 years of age. May received several heavy blows during the course of the fight, but it was not realized that he was hurt until after the fight, when he collapsed in his chair. He was taken to hospital, where he pronounced dead on arrival. Cause of death listed as ruptured artery in brain.

George Scott

3-Feb

1932

TKO

2

Wilbur Russell

29

Kokomo

Indiana

USA

ND

Fresno Bee, February 9, 1932; Modesto (California) News-Herald, February 9, 1932; Woodland (California) Daily Democrat, February 9, 1932; Logansport (Indiana) Press, February 9, 1932. Russell fell just before the end of the first round. He walked to his corner, but the fight was stopped when he did not answer the bell. He died five days later. Cause of death was cerebral edema.

Frankie Lavagnilo

13-Sep

1932

TKO

3

Eugene Clark

14

Elkhart

Indiana

USA

ND

Winnepeg (Manitoba) Free Press, September 15, 1932; Waterloo (Iowa) Daily Courier, September 15, 1932. The referee stopped the bout in the third. Clark left the ring, but collapsed in the dressing room, and subsequently died.

Jackie Austin

11-Feb

1932

Wdec

3

Gail Christian Ulrich

20

New Haven

Connecticut

USA

Light

Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Herald, February 18, 1932; Syracuse (New York) Herald, February 18, 1932. Ulrich was the grandson of the wealthy New York dairyman Gail Borden. He was hit hard during an amateur bout, which he won. He entered the hospital two days later, and died February 17, 1932. Cause of death was a brain injury, which the coroner attributed to meningitis or pneumonia rather than a blow.

ND

24-Jan

1933

KO


Guy Ream

17

Lafayette

Indiana

USA

ND

Hammond (Indiana) Times, May 9, 1933; Tippecanoe County Historical Society, “A Day in the Life of Tippecanoe County,” http://tcha.ecn.purdue.edu:8080/?q=1933. The venue was the local Golden Gloves tournament. Ream was winning when he dropped dead in the ring. Cause of death was a heart attack.

Joe De Lavera

24-Aug

1933

KO

2

Ralph Sanchez

17

Los Angeles

California

USA

ND

San Mateo (California) Times and Daily News Leader, August 26, 1933. Cause of death was brain injury.

Peter Butterworth

5-Sep

1933

KO


Andrew Reeves Charlesworth

20

Wallasey

Merseyside

England

ND

(Dublin) Irish Times, September 6, 1933. The youths were boxing, with gloves, in a field, with friends. During a break between rounds, Charlesworth collapsed. He stood up, said he was fine, then collapsed again. A policeman provided artificial respiration all the way to the hospital, where Charlesworth was pronounced dead. Death was attributed to a heavy meal.

Al Berg

13-Feb

1933

TKO

2

Henry Zuziak

21

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Light (135-lb)

Chicago Daily Tribune, February 14, 1933. After the fight, a friend took Zuziak home. Zuziak told his father that he had lost, and went to bed. Soon after, his father found him dead.

Ben Melzer

8-Mar

1934

KO


Martin Vajdich Jr.

19

Rensselaer

Indiana

USA

Light

Hammond (Indiana) Times, March 8, 1934; Port Arthur (Texas) News, March 9, 1934. While breaking from a clinch, Melzer landed an uppercut that lifted Valdich off his feet. The back of Valdich’s head was the first part of his body to hit the floor. He was taken to the hospital, still unconscious, and he died 45 minutes later. Cause of death was skull fracture.

ND

21-Sep

1934

KO


Roy Carpenter


Adelaide

South Australia

Australia

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Mark Schafer

20-Jun

1935

KO

3

Leon Quesnell

30

Langdon

North Dakota

USA

ND

Ironwood (Michigan) Daily Globe, June 21, 1935. Death was attributed to heart attack.

Billy Koerlin

26-Nov

1935

KO

4

John Wolinsky

19

Cleveland

Ohio

USA

Light Heavy

Helena (Montana) Independent, November 27, 1935; Mansfield (Ohio) News Journal, November 27, 1935; New York Times, November 28, 1935. This was a five-round bout, so may have professional rather than strictly amateur. Anyway, during the fourth, Wolinsky was knocked down by a left hook to the head. He never regained consciousness. Cause of death was listed as accidental death from cerebral hemorrhage. Koerlin himself died at the age of 26, in November 1938, after swallowing his dental plate. See Mansfield (Ohio) News Journal, November 11, 1938.

Eddie Deweese

28-Jan

1935

TKO

1

Frank De Young

21

Jackson

Michigan

USA

Welter

New York Times, January 30, 1935. The morning after the fight, De Young complained of a headache. That afternoon, he fell unconscious, and he died in the hospital.

Rex Smith

11-Mar

1936

KO

2

Walter Herts

19

Punxsutawney

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Clearfield (Pennsylvania) Progress, March 13, 1936; New Castle (Pennsylvania) News, March 14, 1936; San Antonio (Texas) Light, March 14, 1936; Uniontown (Pennsylvania) Morning Herald, March 14, 1936; New Castle (Pennsylvania) News, April 3, 1936. The venue was the Elks club. It was Herts’ second fight and Smith’s first; Smith had been brought in as a substitute. Herts was knocked down two times in the first round and once in the second. The referee did not stop the fight, so Smith hit Herts with a left hook, and this time, Herts stayed down. Cause of death was subdural hemorrhage and fracture at the base of the skull on the right side, near the ear. The death was attributed to the fall rather than the blow.

Robert Bates

21-Mar

1936

KO


Judson Hobart

19

Sacramento

California

USA

Welter

Woodland (California) Daily Democrat, March 23, 1936; Galveston (Texas) Daily News, March 23, 1936; Elyria (Ohio) Chronicle Telegram, June 30, 1936. Hobart, who was the only boxer in the tournament to fight four times in two days, was knocked down. He got up, and was knocked down again. This time, he did not get up. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage. Cause of death was attributed to the fall rather than blows.

Red Reynolds

28-Feb

1936

Ldec

3

William J. Radford

21

Lake Charles

Louisiana

USA

ND

San Antonio (Texas) Light, March 1, 1936. Radford was knocked down in the second, but finished the fight. He collapsed in the shower room, and died. The coroner attributed the death to the fall in the shower on the grounds that Radford had not been hit hard enough to be hurt by the blows.

ND

Feb/

1936

TKO


Cecil Lewis Willing Mole

13

Rochester

Medway

England

ND

(Dublin) Irish Times, February 27, 1936. The bout was taking place as part of a varsity meet between schools. The doctor who did the autopsy said that cause of death was injury to the intestines, due to congenital abnormality of the spine. The jury censured the school for not having a physician present during the tournament.

Steve Dempko

3-Feb

1936

Wdec

3

John Kours

22

Gary

Indiana

USA

ND

Hammond (Indiana) Times, February 4, 1936; Hammond (Indiana) Times, February 5, 1936; Hammond (Indiana) Times, February 12, 1936. After winning the bout, Kours fell off a bench on which he was seated. The coroner’s verdict failed to determine whether the brain injury was owed to the fall from the bench or blows during the bout.

ND

Jul/

1937

KO


Theodore Thomas

24

Clarksville

Iowa

USA

ND

(Greene) Iowa Recorder, July 7, 1937. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain.

Mike Lombardo

30-Jan

1937

TKO

2

William Eastman

18

College Park

Maryland

USA

Middle (155-lb)

New York Times, February 1, 1937; Washington Post, February 1, 1937. Burlington (North Carolina) Daily Times-News, February 1, 1937; Frederick (Maryland) Post, February 2, 1937. Eastman was knocked down once in the first round. After being floored again in the second, his corner threw in the towel. Eastham walked out of the ring. He sat down, visibly disappointed, and then collapsed in his chair. He was taken to hospital, where he died the following day without regaining consciousness. Cause of death listed as broken neck.

Ray Maher

27-Jun

1938

KO

3

Peter Cribari

17

Chicago

Illinois

USA

ND

Freeport (Illinois) Journal-Standard, June 28, 1938; Chicago Daily Tribune, June 29, 1938; Chicago Southtown Economist, June 30, 1938. The bout took place at a city recreation center. Cribari was ahead on points going into the third round, when he was hit hard. He collapsed into the arms of the referee, and the fight was stopped. City firemen were on the scene within 15 minutes, but he still died. Cause of death was unknown.

Bud Hilger

31-Mar

1938

TKO

3

Keith Blakeman

18

Columbus

Nebraska

USA

ND

Lincoln (Nebraska) Evening State Journal, March 31, 1938; Lincoln (Nebraska) Evening State Journal, April 1, 1938. Blakeman fell from the ring. On the way down, he may have struck his head on the edge of the platform. He stood up, and then collapsed. He died in hospital two hours later. Cause of death was acute brain injury.

Willie Tapp

9-Mar

1939

Ldec

3

James O. Lofflin (Orville Lyons)

19

Washington

District of Columbia

USA

Feather

Washington Post, March 10, 1939; Washington Post, December 22, 1950. Lofflin was a soldier at Fort Belvoir. At the end of the fight, he had a bloody nose that wouldn’t stop. He went to the dressing room and took a shower. He sat down on a bench, and then collapsed. He was taken to the hospital. Cause of death was intercranial bleeding. The bout was part of the District of Columbia Golden Glove tournament, and Tapp went on to become the 1939 National Golden Glove champion.

Hoichi Kanazawa

13-Nov

1940

KO


Kiei Ryu


Tokyo


Japan

ND

Japan Times, November 16, 1940.

Leo Tanel

17-Dec

1940

KO

2

Richard Henry

20

Denver

Colorado

USA

Heavy

Appleton (Wisconsin) Post-Crescent, December 18, 1940; Oshkosh (Wisconsin) Daily Northwestern, December 18, 1940. After knocking Taney down, Henry staggered to his corner and collapsed. Cause of death was listed as heart attack.

Jim Foust

8-Feb

1941

KO

2

Henry Marshall Long

25

Amarillo

Texas

USA

Light Heavy

Amarillo (Texas) Daily News, February 8, 1941; Amarillo (Texas) News-Globe, February 9, 1941; Amarillo (Texas) News-Globe, February 16, 1941; Dallas Morning News, February 16, 1941. Long was knocked down by a right to the jaw and never regained consciousness. Cause of death was brain contusion compounded by pneumonia. The family subsequently reported that he had once been unconscious for several hours after being thrown from a horse, and another time following a football injury. Long’s brother Loyd was also knocked out during the same tournament.

Fred North

6-Feb

1942

KO

1

Frank J. Burroughs Jr.

20

Chattanooga

Tennessee

USA

Welter

New York Times, February 8, 1942; Anniston (Alabama) Star, February 8, 1942. Although this was the finals, the fight ended in 15 seconds. Boroughs died the following day. Cause of death listed as brain concussion.

Otto Dutton

26-Mar

1942

KO

4

John Franklin Barringer

21

Salinas

California

USA

Heavy

Oakland Tribune, March 27, 1942; Huron (South Dakota) Evening Huronite, March 26, 1942. Barringer died in the dressing room after the fight. Both boxers were in the service, Barringer in the Air Corps and Dutton in the Army. The bout was part of a Catholic Youth Organization charity card.

ND

9-Aug

1943

KO

3

Chester Cusano

16

Stowe Township

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Charleroi (Pennsylvania) Mail, August 10, 1943; New Castle (Pennsylvania) News, August 10, 1943. The venue was the local high school, and the audience was high school boys registering for the draft. At the start of the third, Cusano stood to answer the bell and then collapsed. He died just over an hour later.

ND

24-Feb

1943

Ldec

3

James R. “Tex” Webster Jr.

22

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Feather

(Pittsfield, Massachusetts) Berkshire Evening Herald, February 25, 1943; Chicago Daily Tribune, February 26, 1943. Webster, the Indiana Golden Gloves champion lost in the nationals. He went back to his hotel, and was found dead next morning, fully clothed and face up in his bathtub. Cause of death was attributed to epilepsy.

Francis Kaopua

5-Mar

1944

KO

2

Tamio Ikeda

24

Honolulu

Hawaii

USA

ND

Honolulu Advertiser, July 3, 1944. During the first round, Ikeda was knocked down, but got up quickly. Then, in the second round, he fell to the floor without being touched. He was carried to the dressing room, where he was pronounced dead.

ND

Oct/

1944

KO


Pepe Chavez


Barcelona


Spain

Feather

Manuel Velazquez collection

Bob Lee

10-Jan

1945

KO

1

William Krutzig

20

Minneapolis

Minnesota

USA

ND

Council Bluffs (Iowa) Nonpareil, January 12, 1945; Charleston (West Virginia) Gazette, January 12, 1945. Krutzig was knocked down, and his head reportedly struck the unpadded floor.

Armand Correnti

16-Mar

1945

KO

3

Forrey Jones Jr.

15

Newark

New Jersey

USA

ND

New York Times, March 18, 1945

Benny Ona

16-Jun

1945

KO


Manuel Acev do Sergio-Rivera


Havana


Cuba

Light

Manuel Velazquez collection

Leroy Norton

5-Nov

1945

KO

2

Arthur Walker

18

Jamaica

New York

USA

ND

Port Arthur (Texas) News, November 6, 1945. Walker collapsed in the ring. A police first aid squad responded. He was pronounced dead about 90 minutes later.

Eugene Ciunnrhini

26-Apr

1945

TKO


George Adams

15

San Jose

California

USA

Feather

Fresno Bee Republican, April 28, 1945. The contest was between two high school teams. The referee stopped the fight over Adams’ protests, and sent him to his corner. Soon afterwards, Adams collapsed. Cause of death was believed to be coronary.

Vasco Angelini

14-Aug

1945

TKO

4

Eugene Mastrey

17

Erie

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

New York Times, August 16, 1945. Between the third and fourth rounds, Mastrey said his back hurt, so he did not answer the bell for the fourth. He was taken to the hospital, where he went into a coma. He died the following day.

Howard Schwan

19-Feb

1946

KO

2

Willie Lee Perry

21

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Light Heavy

Waukesha (Wisconsin) Daily Freeman, February 19, 1946; Chicago Daily Tribune, February 19, 1946; Oelwein (Iowa) Daily Register, February 19, 1946. Knocked down in the first round, Perry was saved by the bell. He was knocked down again in the second. He did not get up. An aid car was summoned. When it arrived, the responders pronounced him dead on the scene.

Gus Gerson

3-Mar

1946

KO

1

Dixon Walker

20

Washington

District of Columbia

USA

Light Heavy (165-lb)

Zanesville (Ohio) Times Recorder, March 5, 1946; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, March 4, 1946; Washington Post, December 22, 1950; Anne Cassidy, “Eddie’s boys remembering the heyday of collegiate boxing,” CUA Magazine, March 2005, http://publicaffairs.cua.edu/cuamag/spr05/features/eddiesboys.htm. Walker, a University of Maryland boxer, was in his third amateur fight. He was knocked out in 50 seconds. He got up, and walked out of the ring. He collapsed in the dressing room and was taken to the hospital. Cause of death was listed as cerebral hemorrhage.

Art Swider

17-Aug

1946

KO


Don George

21

Ebensburg

Pennsylvania

USA

Light Heavy

Connellsville (Pennsylvania) Daily Courier, August 19, 1946; Philadelphia Inquirer, August 17, 1946; Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Times, August 21, 1946. George collapsed after being hit with two blows to the temples, one on each side, that were delivered almost simultaneously.

Jim Mitchell

11-Mar

1946

TKO

2

Rodney Earlywine

18

Logan

Iowa

USA

Welter (147-lb)

Mount Pleasant (Iowa) News, March 12, 1946; Council Bluffs (Iowa) Nonpareil, March 12, 1946. The match was between Logan High School and Boys Town. Loganwine was not doing well throughout the fight, and he was hit hard in the abdomen at the end of the second. So, between rounds, the Logan coach and the referee decided to stop the fight. At that point, the Boys Town coach started helping Loganwine from the ring. Loganwine said he could walk, so the coach let go. Loganwine collapsed, and he subsequently died in the dressing room. Cause of death was a ruptured spleen.

ND

29-Jan

1947

KO


Anthony Sconzo

16

Brooklyn

New York

USA

ND

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, January 30, 1947. Cause of death was subdural hematoma.

Robert De Bouchelle

26-Mar

1947

KO


J T Horton

23

Long Beach

California

USA

Heavy

Walla Walla (Washington) Union Bulletin, March 27, 1947; Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Census Place: Ryans Cross Roads, Morgan, Alabama; Roll: 45; Page: 8A; Enumeration District: 33; Image: 505.0. Horton died within an hour of the knockout.

ND

15-Apr

1947

KO


Gunnar Melkie

19

Helsinki


Finland

ND

New York Times, April 17, 1947.

Robert Harris

29-Oct

1947

KO

4

James Wilander

27

Pasadena

California

USA

ND

Los Angeles Times, October 30, 1947; San Antonio (Texas) Light, October 30, 1947. Wilander was knocked down in the first round. However, he stood back up and continued normally until the fourth, when he suddenly collapsed without being struck. Cause of death was attributed to heart attack.

Sherwood Townsend

3-Jan

1947

TKO

2

Travis Hudson

17

Shreveport

Louisiana

USA

ND

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, January 30, 1947; Albert Lea (Minnesota) Evening Tribune, January 4, 1947. Hudson’s corner threw in the towel. Hudson and his handlers then walked to dressing room, where Hudson collapsed.

Art Rabonza

13-Feb

1948

KO


Joe Nunez

17

Santa Ana

California

USA

Middle

(Reno) Nevada State Journal, February 14, 1948. Nunez was knocked down several times. He collapsed in the ring, and died later that day.

Gilbert Acevedo

18-Mar

1948

KO

2

Christoper Iacona

13

Brooklyn

New York

USA

Fly (70-lb)

New York Times, March 19, 1948; New York Times, March 20, 1948. Iacona collapsed in the ring during a bout held in the gym of Public School 29 in Brooklyn. The contests were informal, and consisted of three two-minute rounds, with 1-1/2 minute rest periods. Sixteen ounce gloves were worn. Cause of death was attributed to meningitis and thymico-lymphaticus. (The latter is medical jargon that is no longer used, but in those days, it referred to an unexplained death in a youth with an enlarged thymus.) Iacona’s parents took the case to court, arguing that the city was negligent because no physical examinations were required and that no training had been provided. The jury found for the parents, but in 1955, when the case finally reached the appeals court, the court ruled that the city was not “under a duty to examine physically every participant in an athletic activity.” The case law is Iacona v. Board of Education of City of New York, 285 A.D. 1168, 140 N.Y.S. 2d 539.

Lupe Quintana

8-Jun

1948

KO

3

Lloyd Martinez

19

Salida

Colorado

USA

Light

Ironwood (Michigan) Daily Globe, June 9, 1948; Charleston (West Virginia) Daily Mail, June 9, 1948; Long Beach (California) Press-Telegram, June 9, 1948. Martinez had been knocked down earlier in the fight, but as he came out for the start of the third round, he did not appear to be in bad shape. Then he spun around and fell unconscious to the floor. He died in hospital an hour later. Cause of death was listed as concussion of the brain.

J. Erasmus

4-Jul

1948

KO

3

Elias Karasellos

27

Salisbury


Rhodesia

Light Heavy

Manuel Velazquez collection

Basil Tsendze

28-Oct

1948

KO


Moses Poto

23

Port Elizabeth


South Africa

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Manuel Perez Parrado

29-Mar

1948

Wdec

3

Gerardo Hernandez Loyola

23

Caibarien


Cuba

ND

New York Times, March 30, 1948; Chicago Daily Tribune, March 30, 1948. Reportedly, Loyola was barely touched during the match. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage.

William Holmes

27-Jan

1949

KO


Charles Byas

20

Moberly

Missouri

USA

Light Heavy (175-lb)

New York Times, January 28, 1949; (Pasco, Washington) Tri-City Herald, January 28, 1949; Modesto (California) Bee and News-Herald, January 28, 1949. Byas was carried from the ring unconscious, and he died en route to the hospital. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

Carlos Ramirez

1-Apr

1949

KO


Alfred John Cavanaugh

19

Memphis Naval Air Station

Tennessee

USA

Middle

Chicago Daily Tribune, April 2, 1949. Cavanaugh, a US Marine private, died of injuries received while participating in a boxing tournament at the naval station.

ND

26-Jul

1949

KO


Herman Fleissner

29

Frankfurt


Germany

ND

New York Times, July 28, 1949.

ND

30-Oct

1949

KO


Rino Bettolo

20

Milan


Italy

Fly

Manuel Velazquez collection

Peter Brander

10-Mar

1949

TKO

3

Andre Le Floch

19

London

London

England

Feather

Manuel Velazquez collection. Le Floch walked out of the ring. He collapsed, and died 32 hours later. He had previously complained of headaches.

ND

10-Mar

1950

KO

4

Francisco Nunez

19

Mexico City


Mexico

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Rudy Glen Paders

21-May

1950

KO

3

William Humphries

25

Rhondda


Wales

ND

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, May 22, 1950; personal communication with Kim Paders-Ball, August 2, 2006.

Jack Trimble

5-Jun

1950

KO

3

Aubrey Bell

18

Belfast


Northern Ireland

ND

(Dublin) Irish Times, June 6, 1950. Bell entered the tournament because another boxer was ill. He was knocked to the ground in the third. He did not get up. A doctor was brought to the outdoor stadium, but Bell was dead by the time the doctor arrived. Death was attributed to the fall rather than the blow.

Max Haynes

25-Jun

1950

KO


Raymond L. Grandy Jr.

19

Aboard SS Brazil, in the Atlantic


USA (At sea)

ND

New York Times, June 27, 1950. SS Brazil was a Moore-McCormack liner, originally known as SS Virginia. Both boxers were members of the ship’s company.

Noel Trigg

25-Oct

1950

KO


Gordon Avery

18

Newport


Wales

ND

Charleston (West Virginia) Gazette, November 11, 1950.

ND

3-Jan

1951

KO


Mario Storti


Buenos Aires


Argentina

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Hans Heidinger

7-Jan

1951

KO

3

Franz Mayr

17

Linz


Austria

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

D.J. Mobedji

9-Jan

1951

KO

1

Krishnakumar Satgare

18

Bombay


India

Fly

Manuel Velazquez collection. The name is also shown as S. Kumar and K.V. Satghare.

ND

26-Mar

1951

KO

3

Kurt Kosell

19

Bamberg


Germany

Welter

Chicago Daily Tribune, March 27, 1951. Kosell collapsed in the ring and died.

Ray Terrell

4-Jul

1951

KO

3

Michael Chandler

17

Charlotte

North Carolina

USA

ND

New York Times, July 5, 1951; Zanesville (Ohio) Signal, July 5, 1951; Burlington (North Carolina) Daily Times-News, July 5, 1951. Physical examinations had not been given to the fighters prior to the matches, which were sponsored by the Disabled American Veterans and sanctioned by the Amateur Athletic Union. During the third round, Chandler turned glassy-eyed, then collapsed backwards without being hit. Cause of death was suspected to be heart failure.

ND

16-Nov

1951

KO


Orvaldo Ricci

17

Genoa


Italy

ND

New York Times, November 22, 1951.

Peter Prinsloo

1-Dec

1951

KO

2

J.F. (Dotsei) Velleman

20

Harrismith


South Africa

Heavy

Winnipeg (Manitoba) Free Press, December 4, 1951; Washington Post, December 4, 1951.

ND

30-Dec

1951

KO


Charles Taylor

17

Chillicothe

Ohio

USA

ND

Zanesville (Ohio) Signal, December 31, 1951. Taylor was an inmate at the reformatory at Chillicothe, participating in a supervised match. He was knocked out and died. The warden attributed the death to Taylor striking his head on the floor.

Dale Colland

8-Feb

1951

TKO

1

John Shoddy

16

Fort Wayne

Indiana

USA

Light

Monessen (Pennsylvania) Daily Independent, February 9, 1951; Harrisburg (Illinois) Daily Register, February 9, 1951. After the referee stopped fight, Shoddy walked to the dressing room, where he collapsed. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

Mar/

1951

TKO

3

Gaston Mann

18

ND


Trinidad and Tobago

Feather

Manuel Velazquez collection. Mann stood up, collapsed in the ring, and died in hospital.

ND

14-Jun

1952

KO


Arthur Naidos


Johannesburg


South Africa

Feather

Manuel Velazquez collection

Peter Schmidt

30-Jul

1952

KO

2

John McLean

22

Rotorua


New Zealand

Heavy

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm

Josip Pavelich

27-Aug

1952

KO


Nicholas Vamvakas

22

Athens


Greece

ND

Charleston (West Virginia) Gazette, August 31, 1952.

Jesus Ponce de Leon

20-Sep

1952

KO

2

Salvador Cerda


Mexico City


Mexico

Bantam

Manuel Velazquez collection. Cerda collapsed in the ring and died.

ND

20-Nov

1952

KO

2

Stephen Flerchinger

21

Colorado Springs

Colorado

USA

ND

New York Times, November 22, 1952. Flerchinger fell backward after taking several punches to the body. The autopsy did not reveal cause of death.

Casildo Montero

22-Nov

1952

KO

2

Remo Anibal Charra

23

Bolivar


Argentina

Middle

New York Times, November 24, 1952; Williamsport (Pennsylvania) Gazette and Bulletin, November 25, 1952. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

4-Dec

1952

KO


Leonard Davidson

30

London

London

England

Feather

Charleston (West Virginia) Gazette, December 9, 1952.

Lionel Wickard

10-Dec

1952

Ldec

3

Donald A. Millard

22

Golden

Colorado

USA

ND

New York Times, December 12, 1952. Lionell was boxing in an intramural tournament at the Colorado School of Mines. He collapsed soon after the bout, and he died the following morning. Cause of death was listed as brain hemorrhage.

ND

7-Mar

1952

TKO

2

Jack Engleman

15

LaCrosse

Washington

USA

ND

Walla Walla (Washington) Union-Bulletin, March 9, 1952; Walla Walla Union-Bulletin, March 12, 1953. This was a supervised match in a high school. There were no knockdowns or seemingly hard blows. Engleman seemed to be getting very tired, so the match was stopped. Engleman went to the dressing room, where he collapsed and then died. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage.

C. Burns

24-May

1952

WKO

3

Billy Wilkins

19

Newbridge


Wales

ND

Salisbury (Maryland) Times, May 27, 1952. Twenty minutes after the fight, Wilkins complained of dizziness and then collapsed. He died the following day. A coal miner, Wilkins had been hit in the head by a large stone three weeks earlier.

John Vernon

23-Jan

1953

KO

1

Len Lorier

30

Guernsey


Channel Islands

Light Heavy

Ring Record Book 1953. Lorier fell against ropes and his head hit the ring canvas. He died next day. Cause of death listed as double fracture of base of skull. An eccentric New Zealander ran the local boxing club. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/guernsey/walks/05.shtml)

Billy Taylor Jr

29-Jan

1953

KO

3

Eugene Zajcew

18

Westerly

Rhode Island

USA

Light

Bedford (Pennsylvania) Gazette, January 31, 1953. Zajcew collapsed in the ring and he died the following day.

ND

25-Feb

1953

KO

1

Harold Tony Adams

19

Royal Air Force Station Coningsby

Lincolnshire

England

ND

New York Times, February 27, 1953; “Boxing: On the ropes?” http://www.pro.gov.uk/inthenews/boxing/1965RAFreport3500.jpg. It was Adams’ second fight of the tournament. The fight was stopped in the first after Adams had taken an eight-count and then fallen. The autopsy reported cause of death as cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, and cardiac failure. Both boxers were members of the Royal Air Force.

Charles Cator

24-Mar

1953

KO

3

Clifton Johnson

17

Lancaster

Pennsylvania

USA

Welter (147-lbs)

New York Times, March 24, 1953; Chicago Daily Tribune, March 24, 1953; Council Bluffs (Iowa) Nonpareil, March 24, 1953. Johnson took a nine-count in the first round, and was counted out in the third. He left the ring, then collapsed before reaching the dressing room. He died a few hours later. It was his fourth fight.

Andrew Mooney

25-Mar

1953

KO


Merrill Silverstein

18

Cleveland

Ohio

USA

Welter (147-lbs)

Oakland Tribune, March 25, 1953; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, March 30, 1953. The match was during the finals of an intramural contest held at Case Western Reserve University. Cause of death was massive intracranial hemorrhage.

Nagle

29-Jan

1953

Ldec

3

John Lanham

24

Honiton

Devon

England

Light

New York Times, January 30, 1953; Oakland Tribune, January 30, 1953. After the bout, Lanham collapsed in the dressing room and he died in hospital. Both boxers were soldiers.

Joe Ortiz

27-Jan

1953

TKO

1

James W. Nelson

20

Brooks Air Force Base

Texas

USA

Middle

Williamsport (Pennsylvania) Gazette and Bulletin, January 29, 1953; (Reno) Nevada State Journal, January 30, 1953. Nelson protested the referee’s decision to stop the fight. He then left the ring. Soon after, he collapsed. Death was attributed to a blood clot on the brain.

ND

17-Mar

1953

TKO

3

Cloyd Hughes Jr.

16

Hotchkiss

Colorado

USA

Welter (147-lbs)

Fresno (California) Bee Republican, May 20, 1953. Hughes attended school for two days after the bout, then became unconscious. He was transported to a hospital in Denver, where he died. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage.

ND

26-Feb

1954

KO

3

Jesse James Hylton

22

Parks Air Force Base

California

USA

Light Heavy

Reno Evening Gazette, December 15, 1954; Ancestry.com. California Death Index, 1940-1997 [database on-line]. Hylton’s headgear became dislodged and while trying to straighten it, he was hit about twenty times. Professional boxers began to wear headgear during training ca. 1920, mostly as a way to reduce cuts during training. The modern foam-and-cloth headgear date the early 1930s. See, for example, W.D. Hamby’s US Patent No. 1,887,636, “Boxing Mask,” which was filed August 6, 1931.

Joe Gregioni

30-Aug

1954

KO

3

M.G. Byrd

22

Naval Auxiliary Air Station Saufley Field

Florida

USA

ND

Reno Evening Gazette, December 15, 1954; Zanesville (Ohio) Times Recorder, September 10, 1954.

Gustav Engleman

18-Apr

1955

Exh


Josef Janoch

24

Vienna


Austria

Feather

Manuel Velazquez collection. A former national champion, Janoch had been warned not to box due to a diagnosed brain hemorrhage.

ND

3-Apr

1955

KO


Werner Bopp

17

Obernburg


Germany

Light Heavy

Long Beach (California) Independent, April 4, 1955; New York Times, April 4, 1955; Winnipeg (Manitoba) Free Press, April 4, 1955. Bopp was not struck before he collapsed, so the ring physician said the cause of death was probably cardiac. LIKELY SOURCE: F. Pampus and N. Muller, “A Case of Death after Boxing Match,” (in German), Dtsch Z Nervenheilkd. 1956; 174(2): 177-88.

John Spence

26-Jan

1956

KO

5

Willie McStay

19

Glasgow


Scotland

Middle (Light Middle)

(Dublin) Irish Times, January 30, 1956. McStay died in hospital on January 29.

Oswaldo Sciffert

30-Apr

1956

KO


Aurelino Fournier

20

Sao Paulo


Brazil

Welter

New York Times, May 1, 1956; Pasadena (California) Independent, May 1, 1956. Cause of death was concussion of the brain.

ND

21-Jun

1956

KO

1

Raymond Perera

20

Colombo


Sri Lanka

Bantam

Milroy Paul, “A fatal injury at boxing (traumatic decerebrate rigidity),” British Medical Journal, February 16, 1957, 364-366. Perera had been scoring with jabs, but then was hit solidly with a right to the chin. Perera slumped to the floor, and then rolled over to one side. The fight was stopped, and Perera was transported to the hospital. His brain was trephined, but he still died on June 22. Cause of death was concussion of the mid-brain and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

ND

24-Jul

1956

KO


Juan Perez Diaz

18

Valencia


Spain

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Oris Tenorio

10-Oct

1956

KO

2

Clifton Thompson

24

Pueblo

Colorado

USA

Fly (111-lb)

New York Times, October 13, 1956; Lincoln (Nebraska) Star, October 13, 1956. Thompson, an Army boxer, was struck in the stomach. He fell down and did not get up. He died in hospital. He was not wearing headgear.

ND

27-Oct

1956

KO


Ephraim Mokheseng

25

ND


South Africa

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

ND

Oct/

1956

KO


Frederick Lucas


Johannesburg


South Africa

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Eduardo Perez

26-Mar

1956

Wdec

3

Alejo Tucares

24

Valparaiso


Chile

ND

New York Times, March 28, 1956.

Heinz Amrain

21-Jul

1957

Draw

3

Ferdinand May

26

Constanz


Germany

Bantam

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, July 22, 1957. After the fight, May complained of a headache. A half hour later, he fell unconscious. He died in hospital. Cause of death listed as brain injuries. A few months previously, May received a concussion during a motorcycle accident.

ND

1-Jan

1957

KO


Eduardo de la Cruz


Baguio


Philippines

ND

Philippine Jurisprudence, G.R. No. L-21574, June 30, 1966, SIMON DE LA CRUZ vs. CAPITAL INSURANCE and SURETY CO., INC., http://www.lawphil.net/judjuris/juri1966/jun1966/gr_l-21574_1966.html. “On January 1, 1957, in connection with the celebration of the New Year, the Itogon-Suyoc Mines, Inc. sponsored a boxing contest for general entertainment wherein the insured Eduardo de la Cruz, a non-professional boxer participated. In the course of his bout with another person, likewise a non-professional, of the same height, weight, and size, Eduardo slipped and was hit by his opponent on the left part of the back of the head, causing Eduardo to fall, with his head hitting the rope of the ring. He was brought to the Baguio General Hospital the following day. The cause of death was reported as hemorrhage, intracranial, left.” As in Gustafson v. New York Life, the court ruled that unless boxing was specifically excluded from coverage, survivors of deceased boxers were entitled to life insurance benefits.

Arlington Stillwell

22-Feb

1957

KO

2

William H. Carter

23

Bindlich


Germany

Middle

Panama City (Florida) News, December 28, 1957; The Ring.

Joe Lorette

23-Aug

1957

KO


Salvador R. Cangelosi Jr

16

New Orleans

Louisiana

USA

ND

Fresno (California) Bee Republican, August 28, 1957. Cangelosi was hit hard during a flurry, and fell down. He died in hospital after surgery. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain.

Florencio Olguin

9-Feb

1957

TKO

3

James Anthony Lopez

19

Roswell

New Mexico

USA

Feather

New York Times, February 11, 1957; Oakland Tribune, February 11, 1957. Lopez walked out of the ring. He collapsed in the dressing room. He died the next day.

Joe Becerra

12-Feb

1958

KO

1

Melvin Young

17

Springfield

Illinois

USA

Feather (126-lb)

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, February 13, 1958; Troy (New York) Times Record, February 14, 1958. Young was an inmate at the Sheridan, Illinois, School for Boys, and this was his second bout of the evening; he had won the first by knockout. The autopsy found a severed artery in the brain, which was attributed to his hitting his head on a rope on the way down. The opponent was not the eponymous world champion Jose Becerra.

Ray Pryor

6-Dec

1958

KO

2

Eshmon Thomas

22

Akron

Ohio

USA

Heavy

Elyria (Ohio) Chronicle Telegram, December 8, 1958. The card was sponsored by Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company for its employees, and it was Thomas’ first fight. He won the first round, but quit in the middle of the second round, saying he was too tired to continue. He went to the dressing room to lay down, but after laying down, he rolled off the bench. The doctor was called, and Thomas died in the ambulance on the way to the hospital. Cause of death was attributed to a cardiac condition.

William Payne

15-Mar

1958

TKO

3

James Poirer

21

Glens Falls

New York

USA

ND

New York Times, March 18, 1958; Bennington (Vermont) Evening Banner, March 21, 1958; Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, April 30, 1958. Poirer, who had been boxing since 1954, was knocked down by a blow to the chin. He died in hospital. Cause of death was a blood clot in the brain.

George Ford

21-Mar

1959

KO

2

Laymon Graveley

17

Roanoke

Virginia

USA

Middle (160-lb)

Zanesville (Ohio) Times Recorder, March 23, 1959. Cause of death was subdural hemorrhage.

Darryl Leard

Mar/

1959

KO


Ronald McKay

18

Alpha

Queensland

Australia

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Fred White

16-Apr

1959

KO


Raymond Curtis Lyons

19

Houston

Texas

USA

ND

Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, April 29, 1960; Charleston (West Virginia) Daily Mail, May 6, 1959. Sam Houston State University, “The Caballero years, 1958-1959,” http://www.shsu.edu/~eng_wpf/history/1958-59.html. Lyons was a Texas A&M sophomore. According to the Sam Houston student paper, Recall, Spring 1959, “After all attempts to revive him had failed just after the bout, he was rushed to a Houston hospital where the doctors said it was only a mild brain concussion. After he died an examination was performed to determine ‘whether or not the fatality was a direct result of the fight.’ It was not.”

Keith Ross

10-May

1959

KO

2

Leslie High

19

Bracknell

Berkshire

England

Welter

New York Times, May 10, 1959; Lethbridge (Alberta), May 12, 1959. High knocked down Ross. Ross stood up, and knocked High down. High did not get up. He died following day in hospital.

James Noelthe

21-Nov

1959

KO

3

John Stickel

20

Wahpeton

North Dakota

USA

Feather (120-lb)

Oakland Tribune, November 23, 1959.

ND

24-Nov

1959

KO


Mohamad Ali bin Bakar

23

Singapore


Singapore

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Billy Strothers

17-Jan

1959

TKO

2

Lynn Davis

22

Houston

Texas

USA

Welter

Lincoln (Nebraska) Evening Journal, January 19, 1959; Bridgeport (Connecticut) Telegram, January 19, 1959; Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, January 24, 1959. After the fight, Davis went to the dressing room, telling his wife, “I feel great.” He showered, got dressed, and then went to watch the final bouts. He said he didn’t feel well, and then he collapsed. An ambulance was called and artificial respiration was begun, but he was dead on arrival.

ND

7-Dec

1959

Wdec

3

John Jardine Kean

18

Royal Air Force Station Martlesham Heath

Suffolk

England

Welter

(Dublin) Irish Times, December 8, 1959; London Times, December 8, 1959; Lethbridge (Alberta) Herald, December 8, 1959; Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, December 8, 1959; “Boxing: On the ropes?” http://www.pro.gov.uk/inthenews/boxing/1965RAFreport3500.jpg.The bout took place during tryouts for a Royal Air Force Fighter Command team. Kean took a straight left between the eyes. He got back up, and then the final bell rang. Kean was awarded the fight on points. About an hour later, he complained of a headache. He was taken to hospital, where he died. Cause of death was listed as “laceration of the brain.”

Stuart Bartell

9-Apr

1960

KO

2

Charles Mohr

22

Madison

Wisconsin

USA

Middle

Chicago Daily Tribune, April 18, 1960; Jim Doherty, “Requiem for a middleweight,” Smithsonian, April 2000, 122-141; see also http://www.thecapitaltimes.com/2001/03/16/opinion/lit_moe.php. The bout took place during the NCAA championship finals. Mohr collapsed in the dressing room a few minutes after the bout. He was immediately taken to the hospital, where he died eight days later. Cause of death was massive hemorrhage of the brain. Mohr was NCAA champion in his weight in 1959, and his death led to the NCAA banning boxing as a varsity sport.

ND

27-Apr

1960

TKO

2

Michael Golubiff

18

Green Bay

Wisconsin

USA

Welter

Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, April 29, 1960.This was a supervised fight in a prison. After Golubiff was knocked down, the fight was stopped. After protesting the stoppage, he went to the dressing room, where he collapsed. Cause of death was listed as congenital aneurysm.

Ben Hurst

16-Nov

1961

KO


Cookie Ronan

19

New York

New York

USA

Bantam

New York Times, April 3, 1962. Cause of death was listed as subdural hematoma.

John Carmichaels

11-Jan

1961

TKO

2

Sherman Walker

18

Wheeling

West Virginia

USA

Middle

Great Bend (Kansas) Daily Tribune, June 4, 1961; Galveston (Texas) Daily News, January 12, 1961. Walker was knocked down twice, so the referee stopped the fight. Cause of death listed as pulmonary edema with blow to head contributing.

Wolfgang Giessman

22-Jul

1962

KO


Emil Braun

18

Allendorf


Germany

Middle

New York Times, July 23, 1962; Chicago Daily Tribune, July 23, 1962; Coshocton (Ohio) Tribune, July 23, 1962. Braun died the day after the bout; it was his 19th birthday. Cause of death was listed as brain concussion. During this same tournament, a welterweight boxer named Friedrich Neutzel was hospitalized for concussion.

ND

26-Dec

1962

ND


Delson Marin


ND


Chile

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

ND

5-Nov

1962

TKO


Alexander Lesniak

18

Warsaw


Poland

Welter

Chicago Daily Tribune, November 7, 1962. Lesniak walked out of the ring. He collapsed in the dressing room. He died six hours later.

Dean Clark

24-Jan

1963

KO

1

Emedino Nunez

26

Odessa

Ohio

USA

ND

Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, February 7, 1964. Cause of death listed as skull fracture.

Antun Novakovic

16-Jun

1963

KO

1

Josip Madjar

23

Slavonski Brod


Yugoslavia (Croatia)

Welter

Kansas City (Missouri) Star, June 17, 1963. Madjar was knocked down, and he died in hospital without regaining consciousness.

ND

6-Oct

1963

KO


Ganija Munadzerija

25

Sarajevo


Yugoslavia (Bosnia)

Fly

New York Times, October 7, 1963; Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, October 7, 1963. The boxer died about half an hour after the fight.

Earl Johnson

6-Apr

1963

TKO

2

Francisco Velasquez

20

Carbondale

Pennsylvania

USA

Middle

(Dublin) Irish Times, April 8, 1963; New York Times, April 7, 1963; New York Times, April 8, 1963; Friedrich Unterharnscheidt, Boxing: Medical Aspects (London: Academic Press, 2003), 557. Cause of death was listed as “massive intra-cranial hemorrhage.” Ten-ounce gloves were being worn, and Velasquez was the only boxer in the tournament who was wearing headgear. The bout was staged as a charity event for the Kiwanis Club.

ND

2-Apr

1963

WTKO


Enzio Barelli

18

Ayr

Queensland

Australia

ND

(Dublin) Irish Times, April 6, 1963; New York Times, April 8, 1963. The fight was stopped because Barelli was overpowering his opponent. However, after the fight, Barelli complained of headaches, and he died the next day.

Louis Pulliam

18-Jan

1964

KO

3

Forrest Wright

17

Flint

Michigan

USA

Light

(Pasco, Washington) Tri-City Herald, January 20, 1964. Cause of death was massive brain hemorrhage.

Victor Arguellas

19-Jan

1964

KO

3

Jose Godoy Lopez


Oruro


Bolivia

Fly

Holland (Michigan) Evening Sentinel, January 21, 1964; Bettman/Corbis Archive, image 42-15854751, http://pro.corbis.com/search/searchFrame.aspx. Cause of death given as pneumonia.

ND

24-Jul

1964

ND


Anon. Soldier


Kapsovar


Hungary

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

ND

ND

1964

ND


Leopoldo Guajardo


ND


Chile

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

ND

11-Jun

1964

TKO

2

Henry Stephens

18

Parramatta

New South Wales

Australia

ND

Modesto (California) Bee and News Herald, June 17, 1964; (Dublin) Irish Times, June 18, 1964; Pacific Stars and Stripes, June 19, 1964. Stephens participated in the tournament in place of his brother. He was hit twice in the head in the second round, and he collapsed in the ring. He died five days later. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain.

Paul Jacobs

12-Sep

1964

TKO

3

Nicky Erasmus

22

Germiston


South Africa

Bantam

El Paso (Texas) Herald-Post, September 18, 1964; (Madison) Wisconsin State Journal, September 19, 1964; Peter Bernard Harris, Interest Groups in South African Politics (Salisbury: University College of Rhodesia, 1968), 85. Erasmus collapsed at the end of the second round. He got up, walked to the corner, hung on to the ropes, and collapsed. He died in hospital five days later.

ND

10-Jan

1965

KO


Said Brahimi

18

Algiers


Algeria

Light

New York Times, January 13, 1965; Pacific Stars and Stripes, January 15, 1965; Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, January 17, 1965. Cause of death was brain injury.

ND

9-Aug

1965

KO

4

Jairo de Jesus Gutierrez

19

Medellin


Colombia

ND

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, August 12, 1965. Gutierrez collapsed in the dressing room. He died three days later.

ND

14-Aug

1965

KO


Arturo Avila

18

Puerto Montt


Chile

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection. Following the fight, Avila complained of severe headaches. He was hospitalized, and he died.

Joseph Batello

2-Nov

1965

KO

1

Ronald E. Alexander

25

Fort Madison

Iowa

USA

ND

Kansas City (Missouri) Times, November 5, 1965. This was a supervised grudge match between two inmates at the state prison, with eight-ounce gloves and three-minute rounds. Cause of death was hemorrhage of the brain.

ND

14-Dec

1965

KO


Romeo Hayohoywo

24

Cebu City


Philippines

ND

Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, December 14, 1965.

ND

17-Dec

1965

KO

3

Louis E. Hand

25

Bad Kreuznach


Germany

Light

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, December 19, 1965. Hand, a soldier participating in a US Army tournament. It was his first tournament. He collapsed in the ring and died the next day. Cause of death was brain injury.

ND

5-Nov

1965

Ldec

3

Clive Buckton

33

Cape Town


South Africa

Heavy

Oakland Tribune, November 6, 1965; Pasadena (California) Independent, November 6, 1965. Upon arriving home after the fight, Buckton complained of chest pains. He then died. Cause of death was listed as heart attack.

ND

5-Nov

1965

Ldec

3

Stanislav Patocka

25

Brattislava


Czechoslovakia (Slovakia)

Light Heavy

Frederick (Maryland) Post, November 17, 1965. The former national champion complained of severe headaches and dizziness and became unconscious the following morning.

Harvey Christian

14-Jan

1965

TKO

2

Jerry Como Jr.

17

Youngstown

Ohio

USA

Light

New York Times, January 15, 1965; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, January 15, 1965; Appleton (Wisconsin) Post Crescent, January 15, 1965. While crouching, Como was hit by a left to the side and he went down. He did not get up. The crowd booed. Como died two days later, without regaining consciousness. Death was attributed to a pre-existing but previously undiagnosed heart condition.

Anibal Martinez

Jan/

1966

KO

1

Carlos Bazan Martinez

21

Fatucen


Chile

Welter

New York Times, January 11, 1966; (Reno) Nevada State Journal, January 12, 1966; Charleston (West Virginia) Sunday Gazette-Mail, January 16, 1966. Cause of death listed as brain damage.

Nadenicek

13-Feb

1966

KO

2

Frantisek Marecek


Karlovy


Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

ND

New York Times, February 20, 1966.

Kloesges

4-Sep

1966

KO

3

Willi Lampert

36

Neuwied


Germany

Light Heavy

New York Times, September 5, 1966; Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, September 5, 1966; Ring Record Book, 1966, 734. Lampert collapsed in the ring and died.

ND

29-Oct

1966

KO


Stephen Aremu

15

Kampala


Uganda

ND

Oakland Tribune, November 1, 1966.

ND

6-Dec

1966

TKO

3

Fritz Regber

16

Repelen


Germany

Light (Jr Light)

(Dublin) Irish Times, December 7, 1966. It was Regber’s first tournament. Midway through the third round, Regber signaled he wanted to stop, so the fight was stopped. On his way back to his corner, he collapsed. After CPR failed to revive him, a ringside doctor cut open Regber’s chest with a pocketknife, and began direct massage. Regber died on the way to the hospital.

ND

6-Oct

1966

Wdec

3

Felics Kierula

21

Warsaw


Poland

ND

New York Times, October 12, 1966; Long Beach (California) Independent, October 12, 1966; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, October 12, 1966. Kierula won the fight, but collapsed in the dressing room and died in hospital. Cause of death was a blood clot on the brain.

John Farrell

19-Jan

1967

KO

3

Gerard O’Brien

19

Dublin


Ireland

ND

New York Times, January 22, 1967; (Dublin) Irish Times, January 23, 1967; (Dublin) Irish Times, April 29, 1967. O’Brien had entered the novice division of a county league tournament; although he was an athlete, this was only his second contest. In the first round, O’Brien took a standing eight count, and in the third, about ten seconds before the round ended, he took a right to the jaw. He went down, hard, and this time, he did not get up. He was taken to hospital, where he died four days later. The coroner attributed the death entirely to the fall, saying that Farrell was “completely blameless.”

John Roberts

21-Jan

1967

Ldec

3

Stanley Mervyn Bell

18

Dapto

New South Wales

Australia

ND

Connellsville (Pennsylvania) Daily Courier, January 23, 1964. Bell came out of the crowd to accept the booth boxer’s challenge.

Su Si Watanabe

27-Aug

1967

Ldec

3

Isamu Nakatasuchi

18

Tokyo


Japan

Light

Appleton (Wisconsin) Post Crescent, August 24, 1967. Nakatasuchi took an eight count in the third round, but got up and lasted to the bell. After the referee declared the winner, he collapsed. He was taken to the hospital, where he underwent surgery. He died anyway. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage.

ND

19-Sep

1967

Wdec


Otto Dhlamini

31

ND


South Africa

Welter

Manuel Velazquez collection. Dhlamini collapsed after winning and soon died.

Jose Izquierdo

3-Jul

1968

KO

3

Jose Lojan Diaz

21

Loja


Ecuador

ND

Pacific Stars and Stripes, July 6, 1968. Diaz collapsed in the ring, bleeding from the mouth and nose. Cause of death was given as ruptured lungs. This was said to be the first boxing fatality in Ecuador.

ND

1-Jan

1968

Ldec

3

John Humphrey

21

London

London

England

Light Heavy

Pacific Stars and Stripes, February 8, 1968. Humphrey went to the hospital with a broken jaw. He died.

Filo Guzman

20-Sep

1969

KO


Juan “Chiquito” Garcia

23

San Pedro de Macoris


Dominican Republic

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

ND

5-Mar

1970

KO


Osamu Oyama

17

Tokyo


Japan

ND

Charleston (West Virginia) Daily Mail, March 9, 1970; Dallas Morning News, March 10, 1970. Oyama was applying for a professional boxing license, and this process involved a test bout. During the test bout, Oyama was knocked down by a right hook to the jaw, and he did not get up. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

20-May

1970

KO


Waldemar Robak

17

Warsaw


Poland

Welter

Oxnard (California) Press-Courier, May 22, 1970. Cause of death was attributed to a blow to the temple.

Vincenzo Pone

24-Nov

1970

KO

3

Umberto Torcolacci

20

Piombino


Italy

Middle

Chicago Daily Tribune, November 26, 1970; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, November 26, 1970. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

18-Dec

1971

KO

3

Peter Parker

24

Kleve


Germany

Light Heavy

London Times, December 1971. Parker, from the Channel Islands, had been boxing since age 12, and was a member of a British international team. During this tournament, he was fighting an opponent from East Germany when he collapsed. He died in a Dutch hospital on December 23. Cause of death was cerebral hemorrhage.

ND

27-Mar

1971

ND


Zbigniew Kopanski

17

Warsaw


Poland

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Louis Lebas

11-Dec

1971

TKO

2

Antoine Gramatico

29

Caen


France

Feather

New York Times, March 10, 1972; Oakland Tribune, March 10, 1972. Gramatico collapsed in the dressing room after the fight, and he died in March 1972, after three months in a coma.

Mickey Doherty

8-Jan

1971

TKO

3

Martin Harkin

20

Ballymena


Northern Ireland

Welter

(Dublin) Irish Times, January 12, 1972. The referee stopped the bout in the third because it was thought Harkin had a broken jaw. Harkin was taken to the hospital, where he died.

Dave Packer

4-Jun

1971

Wdec

4

Nicholas Spruitt

22

Grand Rapids

Michigan

USA

ND

High profile Southeastern MMA fighters to meet in kickboxing match,” IKF Ringside News, February 2002, http://www.ikfkickboxing.com/News02Feb.htm. After the bout, Spruitt complained of a broken nose. He first sought medical attention six days later. He was hospitalized. He lapsed into a coma, and he died June 22, 1971. Cause of death was listed as a sinus cavity blood clot.

Julio Meterano

12-Jun

1972

KO

1

Carlos Alberto Perez

19

Valera


Venezuela

ND

Bucks County (Pennsylvania) Courier Times, June 14, 1972.

ND

11-Aug

1972

KO


Bujang Mohamad Nor

26

Sibu


Malaysia

ND

New York Times, August 13, 1972; Billings (Montana) Gazette, August 13, 1972. Cause of death listed as subdural hematoma.

Silvino Cornago

20-Aug

1972

KO


Rinaldo Cozzani


Buenos Aires


Argentina

Bantam

The Ring

ND

11-Nov

1972

KO

1

Humberto Quiros

22

Calama


Chile

ND

Ring Record Book 1972. Quiros had been knocked out on November 5, and came in as last-minute substitute. Knocked out in the first round, he vomited on leaving the ring. Then he collapsed. He was taken to the hospital, where he died six days later.

Javier Hernandes

25-May

1972

Ldec

3

Graciano Bautista

25

Tijuana


Mexico

ND

Dallas Morning News, May 28, 1972. Bautista complained of headache following the fight and he died after brain surgery.

ND

ND

1973

KO


Lizarraga


Caborca


Mexico

ND

Historia Boxeo Sonorense

Alberto Sandoval

11-May

1973

TKO

1

Mike Britton

15

Boston

Massachusetts

USA

Fly (Jr Fly)

New York Times, June 22, 1973; Chicago Tribune, June 22, 1973. Britton was participating in the US National AAU championships. The fight was stopped in the first round. Afterwards, he was hospitalized for five days in Boston and then another two weeks in Texas. Forty days after the match, he fell unconscious while sitting on a park bench with his girlfriend and he died the next morning. Cause of death was given as a blood clot on the brain.

ND

7-Dec

1974

KO


Paolo Garioni

19

Pavia


Italy

Middle

Zanesville (Ohio) Times Recorder, December 9, 1974. Garioni collapsed in ring and died. He had 80 prior fights.

ND

12-Mar

1974

ND


Fabrizio Avincola


Rome


Italy

Middle

Manuel Velazquez collection. Avincola’s head struck the ring floor.

ND

Nov/

1974

Ndec

3

Phillip Maher

18

Melbourne

Victoria

Australia

ND

Ring Record Book 1974. Maher fought in a sideshow bout for a $4 prize.

ND

26-Nov

1975

Wdec

3

Nader Haghigin

18

Tehran


Iran

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection. Haghigin collapsed after leaving the ring. He remained unconscious until his death 26 hours later.

ND

30-Mar

1976

KO


Fernando Arcellas


Bago


Philippines

Bantam

Manuel Velazquez collection

Robert Colley

10-Jul

1976

KO

2

Peter Gilbert

25

Noumea


New Zealand

Welter

http://www.geocities.com/kiwiboxing/ringdeaths.htm. Gilbert had been knocked out twice in recent fights, and his official book said he was not to fight. However, the annotation was ignored.

William LeCesse

14-Mar

1977

KO

1

Patrick Melendez

21

Lowell

Massachusetts

USA

Light Heavy

Washington Star, April 7, 1977; Annapolis (Maryland) Capital, March 25, 1977; Newport (Rhode Island) Daily News, March 25, 1977. Melendez struck his head on the floor.

Joe Rivers

23-Feb

1978

KO

3

Michael Flynn

16

Memphis

Tennessee

USA

Welter (139-lb)

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, February 24, 1978; Oakland Tribune, February 24, 1978; Marysville (Ohio) Journal-Tribune, February 24, 1978. Flynn was ahead on points. Then he dropped his arms to his side and fell backwards. Rivers was across the ring at the time. Flynn was pronounced dead at the hospital. Cause of death was said to be cardiac.

Juan Torres

14-Jul

1978

TKO

3

Salvador Pons Tormo

19

Alcira


Spain

Light Heavy

(Dublin) Irish Times, July 21, 1978; Los Angeles Times, July 22, 1978; David Frisancho Pineda, “El Box: Camion a la Muerte,” Acta Medica Peruana, 13:3 (Sep-Dec 2001); http://sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe/BVRevistas/acta_medica/VOLXVIII_N3_2001_SET_DIC/box_cami_muerte.htm. Pons was knocked down twice, and the fight was stopped in the third round. Pos died in hospital six days later. Cause of death was brain injury.

ND

5-Oct

1979

KO


Manuel Salazar


Puquio


Peru

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Francis Ricotilli

30-Jan

1979

TKO

2

Francisco Rodriguez

25

New York

New York

USA

Heavy

Tony Kornheiser, “Golden Glove heavyweight, 25, dies after losing fight,” New York Times, February 1, 1979; Michael Baden, “Undetected heart flaw was major contributor,” New York Times, April 22, 1979; Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, “Afterthoughts on the death of an amateur fighter,” New York Times, April 22, 1979. Cause of death was attributed to cardiomegaly (enlarged heart) and sickle cell disease. It was Rodriguez’s first fight.

Johnny Bumphus

15-Mar

1979

TKO

3

Arnaldo Maura

19

Knoxville

Kentucky

USA

Light (132-lb)

Ironwood (Michigan) Daily Globe, March 24, 1979; Pacific Stars and Stripes, March 24, 1979. The referee stopped the fight in the third round. Maura, a soldier assigned to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, went to the dressing room, showered, and then collapsed. He was taken to hospital, where he died. Cause of death was given as brain injury. Bumphus went on to become a member of the 1980 USA Olympic team and a professional junior welterweight champion.

ND

11-Jan

1979

Wdec


Jacob Seiersen

28

Varde


Denmark

Light Heavy

(Dublin) Irish Times, January 13, 1979; Chicago Tribune, January 15, 1979. Seiersen, who was also a division one soccer player, had a career record of 16-4 going into this bout, which he won. Afterwards, he complained of a leg cramp, which then spread. He was taken to the hospital, where he died of brain injury the following day.

ND

12-Jan

1980

Wdec

3

Harlan Hoosier

13

Lenore

West Virginia

USA

ND

Washington Post, January 21, 1980; New York Times, January 22, 1980. The tournament was sanctioned by the West Virginia Boxing Commission rather than the AAU, so Hoosier was not required to wear protective headgear during his bouts. Hoosier had three bouts over three days. He won all three without so much as a nosebleed, but after his third victory, he complained of headaches. He was taken to a local emergency room, and then transported to a hospital with neurological facilities. He underwent brain surgery, but died.

J.C. Johnson

1-Mar

1981

KO

2

Bruce Fitzgerald

24

Easton

Pennsylvania

USA

Light Heavy (178-lb)

Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, March 3, 1981; Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Times, March 3, 1981. It was Fitzgerald’s second fight of the day. After the fight was stopped in the second round, Fitzgerald, the Pennsylvania Golden Gloves champion in 1979, walked from the ring unassisted. An hour later, he collapsed into a coma. He was taken to the hospital, where he died a few hours later. Cause of death was listed as massive contusion of the brain. Francis Walker, executive secretary of the Pennsylvania Athletic Commission, told reporters this was the first death of a Pennsylvania amateur boxer of ring injuries. Actually, there had been at least nine previous amateur boxing deaths in Pennsylvania. These were Bliss (1922), Maham (1927), Wilson (1927), Horne (1930), Cusano (1943), Mastrey (1945), George (1946), Johnson (1953), and Velazquez (1963).

Enrique Duran

31-May

1981

KO

1

Enrique Quintero


ND


Venezuela

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection. Quintero fell down after being hit in the face and he didn’t get back up.

Rafael Arteaga

6-Jun

1981

KO


Carlos Lopez Arocha


ND


Venezuela

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Lewis Wade

12-Feb

1982

KO

2

Benjamin Davis

22

Albuquerque

New Mexico

USA

Light (132-lb)

New York Times, February 18, 1982; Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, February 18, 1982, B-6; Frank Deford, “An encounter to last an eternity,” Sports Illustrated, 58:15 (April 11, 1983), 68-72. Davis was a Navajo Indian, and this was his first boxing tournament. During his second fight in the tournament, he collapsed, and he died in hospital five days later. Cause of death was a head injury. The case law arising from this death is Martinez v. U.S. Olympic Committee C.A. 10 (N.M.), 1986, 802 F. 2d 1275, 55 USLW 2216, 5 Fed. R. Serv. 3d 1253. The court’s decision in this case was that it lacked jurisdiction. At the same time, however, the court opined that the personal representative of an amateur boxer who died from injuries received in a tournament had no claim against the US Olympic Committee.

Darryl Stitch

9-Oct

1982

TKO

2

Charles Love

19

Louisville

Kentucky

USA

Welter

Frederick (Maryland) Post, November 19, 1982; New York Times, October 17, 1982; Frank Deford, “An encounter to last an eternity,” Sports Illustrated, 58:15 (April 11, 1983), 68-72. The fight was stopped when Love was given his third standing 8-count. Love walked to his corner, sat down, and then fell over unconscious. Brain surgery was done. Love died a week later without regaining consciousness.

Chris Naidoo

11-Nov

1982

TKO

3

Maxwell Myaica


Umlazi


South Africa

Light (62 kg)

South Africa Daily News Reporter, November 11, 1982

ND

26-Mar

1983

KO

1

Deon Minnaar


Phalaborwa


South Africa

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Glen Morris

6-Feb

1983

TKO

2

Michael Pitzer

17

Charleston

South Carolina

USA

Feather

New York Times, February 9, 1983; New York Times, February 17, 1983. Pitzer had struck his head against a windshield during a car accident earlier that day, and prior to the match, he reported headaches and vomiting. He quit during the second match of the day, and then lapsed into a coma. Surgery was done to remove blood clots on the brain, but he still died ten days later.

Ramon Negron

23-Sep

1983

TKO

3

Jeremiah Richardson

25

Miami

Florida

USA

Middle (Jr Middle)

Syracuse (New York) Herald-Journal, September 30, 1983; Miami (Florida) News-Reporter, September 30, 1983. The injury was a clot on the right side of the brain.

Hank Williams

28-Feb

1985

KO

3

Howard Brooks

24

Miami

Florida

USA

Heavy (Super Heavy)

Elyria (Ohio) Chronicle Telegram, March 2, 1985; Miami (Florida) Herald, March 3, 1985; Miami (Florida) News, March 4, 1985; Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Times, March 7, 1985. Brooks, in his fourteenth fight as an amateur, won the first round. He was knocked down in the second, but got up. He was knocked down again in the third round. He stood up for the mandatory standing 8-count, and then fell forward on his face. Cause of death was believed to be a burst blood vessel in the brain.

ND

29-Nov

1985

ND


Wade Bisher

18

Billings

Montana

USA

ND

Washington Post, December 1, 1985; European Stars and Stripes, December 2, 1985. Bisher fell through the ropes, and struck his head on the timer’s table. He died the following morning in hospital. Cause of death was brain injury.

ND

28-Mar

1987

KO

1

Joseph Sticklen

15

Saddleworth

Oldham

England

ND

(Dublin) Irish Times, April 1, 1987. It was Sticklan’s second fight, and the bout was just 52 seconds old when the referee stopped it. The referee asked the doctor to look at Sticklan. Sticklan collapsed within another minute, and he died in hospital four days later.

ND

13-Dec

1988

KO

3

Roy Hodgson

21

Lemgo


Germany

Heavy

(Dublin) Irish Times, December 17, 1988. Hodgson was a soldier in the Second Royal Irish Rangers, stationed in West Germany, and he was participating in a regimental boxing tournament. He was knocked down by a blow to the head, and he died within the hour.

Per Malmsten

May/

1989

KO


Arthur Hendler


ND


Sweden

ND

Boxning har skördat över 500 dödsoffer,” Aftonbladet, December 7, 1999, http://www.aftonbladet.se/sport/9912/07/boxning.html; http://teddystenmark.com

ND

24-Mar

1989

Ldec

3

Guydell Williams

18

Myrtle Beach

South Carolina

USA

Welter (139-lb)

Doylestown (Pennsylvania) Intelligencer, March 27, 1989; Washington Post, March 27, 1989; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, March 29, 1989. Williams suffered a stroke after fighting twice in one day. NOTE: This is a possible PFO death, because in people under age 50, patent foramen ovale, PFO is the cause of 25-50% of all strokes. PFO is the name given to a small hole in the heart that everyone has at birth, and that usually closes up within a few years. If it does not close up, it usually causes no problems. However, in rare instances, PFO can allow small clots to pass through, and these clots can in turn lead to strokes. Although symptoms of PFO include blurred vision and flashes of light, the condition cannot be diagnosed without special tests.

ND

28-Nov

1991

KO


Julio Malca


Ilo


Peru

ND

De Peru

ND

16-May

1992

KO

2

Kenzo Kawamoto

16

Yokohama


Japan

Fly (Mosquito)

USA Today, June 3, 1992. Kawamoto was participating in a high school varsity tournament. He collapsed in his corner at the end of the round. He died of brain injury.

ND

Nov/

1992

KO


Sergio Luis Brito


ND


Mexico

ND

R. Yalen

Jose Longoria

18-Jan

1992

Ldec

3

Roman Gomez

19

Phoenix

Arizona

USA

ND

Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, January 20, 1992; Washington Post, July 4, 2001, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A16040-2001Jul3.html; personal communication with Karl Gruse, March 9, 2005. This was Gomez’s first contest. He collapsed after the fight, and he died about 18 hours later. Cause of death was subdural hematoma.

ND

25-Apr

1993

KO

3

Alexander Kostadinov

18

Sliven


Bulgaria

Bantam

Kingston (Jamaica) Gleaner, April 28, 1993

Tom McLeod

16-Feb

1994

KO

3

Donell Lindsey

28

St. Paul

Minnesota

USA

Middle (156-lb)

St Paul (Minnesota) Pioneer Press, February 16, 1994; Elyria (Ohio) Chronicle Telegram, February 16, 1994. During a tournament, Lindsey took a glancing blow off his headgear. He collapsed, and died. It was his second fight of the tournament, and his eleventh career bout.

Robert Adams

21-Jun

1996

TKO

3

Dale Foreman

24

Richmond

Kentucky

USA

Heavy

Ironwood (Michigan) Daily Globe, July 2, 1996; Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, July 2, 1996; Washington Post, July 2, 1996. Going into the third round, Foreman was leading on points. Then, in the third, he dropped his hands and looked dazed, so the referee stopped the fight. Foreman went to his corner and said that he felt dizzy and that he couldn’t hear. An ambulance was called, and he died in hospital several hours later. Cause of death was given as head injuries.

Hugo Ortiz

4-Jan

1997

KO

3

Jacob Greenwalt

15

Little Rock

Arkansas

USA

Fly (106-lb)

George Schroeder, “Greenwalts make way to ring again,” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, January 17, 1998, http://www.ardemgaz.com/prev/arena/boxingfoloa.asp; George Schroeder, “Fighting spirit endures,” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, January 18, 1998, http://www.ardemgaz.com/prev/arena/boxingfolob.asp. Cause of death was re-injury to a pre-existing blood clot on the brain. The family approved organ donation.

Victor Mendoza

1-Mar

1997

KO

3

Dylan Baker

19

San Antonio

Texas

USA

Middle

Abilene Reporter-News, March 2, 1997, http://www.texnews.com/texsports97/boxer030497.html; San Antonio Express-News, March 4, 1997; Dallas Morning News, May 2, 1997, http://www.texnews.com/texsports97/boxer050297.html; “Athletes at risk: Second Impact Syndrome in sports,” http://www.firmani.com/SIS-case/incidents.htm; John Whisler, “Fighting for safety,” San Antonio Express-News, February 27, 2004, http://www.mysanantonio.com/sports/stories/MYSA27.01C.BOXimpact27a.104207aa.html. Baker took a punch to the left temple and fell over dead. Death was first blamed on diabetes, but the autopsy revealed brain injury. The cause of death was later attributed to Second Impact Syndrome, and the subsequent lawsuit was the reason USA Boxing subsequently added warnings about the risk of Second Impact Syndrome to US amateur boxers’ passbooks.

ND

24-May

1997

KO


Joseph E. Bolger

17

Redmond

Washington

USA

ND

Seattle Times, May 26, 1997; Pacific Stars and Stripes, May 29, 1997; Social Security Death Index. Bolger was participating in a backyard smoker that was meant to raise money for high school activities. He had a history of heart problems, and during the fight he complained of not feeling well. Adults were present, and headgear was being worn.

ND

21-May

1999

KO


Gjokica Nedelkovski

19

Patras


Greece

Light

http://www.b-info.com/tools/miva/newsview.mv?url=places/Bulgaria/news/99-05/may22a.mia. Cause of death was attributed to myocardial infarction.

ND

16-Jan

2000

KO


ND

17

Niigata


Japan

ND

Parents refused damages over schoolboy boxer’s death,” Mainichi Daily News, March 12, 2004, http://mdn.mainichi.co.jp/news/archive/200403/12/20040312p2a00m0dm004000c.html. Despite being knocked down twice during a school boxing competition, the deceased was told to continue. He died of brain injuries eight days later. A local court ruled that the referee and cornermen had provided adequate supervision.

ND

28-May

2000

KO

2

Juan Silva III

16

El Paso

Texas

USA

Welter (139-lb)

Syracuse (New York) Post-Standard, May 31, 2000; CNN/Sports Illustrated, May 30, 2000, http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/boxing/news/2000/05/30/teenboxer_dies_ap/. Silva was representing the Warriors for Christ boxing club. After the match, “he started acting strangely and then he just collapsed,” said an El Paso police spokesman afterwards. From http://www.dearlydeparted.net/1384.htm on April 5, 2005: “Brother, I wish I could get just one last chance to hold you again. You were taken from this family so suddenly. We told you goodbye thinking you were just going away on your boxing tournament and coming back a champion. Not once did the thought of a permanent goodbye cross our minds.”

Tassos Berdesis

Sep/

2000

KO


Thanasis Giorgos Miliordos

18

Patras


Greece

Middle

C. Constantoyannis and M. Partheni, “Fatal head injury from boxing,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, February 2004, 38 (1) 78-9, abstract at http://bjsm.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/1/78; “Boxer convicted,” Athens, Greece, Kathimarini, May 8, 2003, http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100018_08/05/2003_29384. Cause of death was subdural hematoma. The death was attributed to an illegal blow. In 2003, both the survivor and the referee were both sentenced to three years imprisonment, suspended.

Jesse Shoemaker

16-Feb

2001

Wdec

4

Quinton Grier

31

Joplin

Missouri

USA

Heavy

Joplin Globe, February 18, 2001. After the bout ended, Grier went across the ring to shake hands. He turned around, started back to his corner, and pitched forward on his face. Cause of death was listed as a heart condition.

Asahan Tourino

21-Sep

2003

KO


Mula Sinaga

24

Padang Sidempuan


Indonesia

Welter (64-kg)

Jeff Pamungkas, “The Year of Living Dangerously!” Fightnews.com, March 12, 2004, http://www.fightnews.com/pamungkas17.htm. Sinaga died in hospital three days later.

ND

10-May

2003

Ldec

3

Athula Bandara Senaviratne

30

Colombo


Sri Lanka

ND

Sandasen Marasinghe, “Death blow to boxer,” Sri Lanka Daily News, May 17, 2003, http://www.dailynews.lk/2003/05/17/new15.html. After taking several heavy blows to the head, and losing the fight, Senaviratne complained of headaches and nausea. He was taken to the hospital, where he died.

Jeffrey Etang

19-Jan

2004

Wdec

3

Reynan (or Ryan) Padrones

17

Iloilo City


Philippines

Fly (48-kg)

Dominic Menor and Rexel Sourza, “17-year-old pug dies after winning school tilt,” ABS-CBN.com, January 23, 2004, http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/NewsStory.aspx?section=Sports&OID=43072. After winning the fight, Padrones complained of dizziness and began to vomit. He was taken to the university hospital, where he died the following day. Cause of death was blood clots in the brain.

Heather Schmitz

3-Apr

2005

KO

3

Becky Zerlentes

34

Fort Collins

Colorado

USA

ND

Adrian Dater, “Female boxer, 34, dies,” Denver Post, April 5, 2005, http://www.denverpost.com/Stories/0,1413,36%257E76%257E2798915,00.html. See also Christine Dell’Amore, “Profile of Heather Schmitz,” Denver Post, March 20, 2005, http://www.denverpost.com/Stories/0,1413,36%257E33084%257E2799639,00.html; Social Security Death Index. During the third round, Zerlentes took a straight right over her left eye. She staggered forward and collapsed. She never regained consciousness, and she died in hospital a few hours later. Cause of death was listed as blunt force trauma. (NOTE: On the date of this contest, USA Boxing had 2,200 registered female amateur boxers. As for female pro boxers, the first licensed pro bout in Nevada was in 1975. Since then, several female pro boxers have been badly hurt, but none are known to have died of their injuries.)

Nasser Mafuru

26-Jul

2006

KO

2

Emmanuel Davis Kimario


Dar es Salaam


Tanzania

Light

Boxer dies in Dar league,” ThisDay, August 2, 2006, http://www.thisday.co.tz/Sports/500.html. In the first round, Kimario knocked down Mafuru. Mafuru took a mandatory standing 8-count. During the second round, Kimario was knocked down by a series of uppercuts. Unlike Mafuru, Kimario did not get up, and he died in hospital later the same day.

ND

1-Oct

2006

Ndec

3

Jefferson Pitner

16

Palm Desert

California

USA

ND

Ben Spillman and Mandy Zatynski, “Student dies in local ‘fight club’,” Palm Springs (California) Desert Sun, October 3, 2006; “Mother of boy who died after fighting speaks out,” CBS2.com, October 6, 2006, http://cbs2.com/topstories/local_story_279135253.html; Kakie Urch, “Jefferson Pitner memorial draws about 200 mourners,” Palm Springs (California) Desert Sun, October 8, 2006. Although gloves were worn, the bout took place in at an unsanctioned, unsupervised “fight club” that had been operating for several years. Pitner collapsed following his third three-round bout of the afternoon. Paramedics were called around 4:00 p.m., and Pitner died in hospital at about 10:45 p.m. Cause of death was described as “severe head injury.” The local high school principal subsequently told students, “If you’re going to box, do it right, go down to one of these boxing clubs.”

ND

19-Mar

2006

Wdec

3

Dimitris Livadas

21

Patras


Greece

Middle (75-kg)

Winnipeg Sun, March 25, 2006, http://winnipegsun.com/Sports/OtherSports/2006/03/25/1504706-sun.html; “Greek boxer dies after injured in competition,” Xinhua, March 25, 2006, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-03/25/content_4342951.htm. Livadas collapsed shortly after the match ended. Cause of death was brain hemorrhage.


Table 5: Professional ring deaths, 1890 to present


Survivor

Day/Mo

Year

Res

Rd

Deceased

Age

City

County/State

Country

Weight

Source/Remarks

Andy John Murray

22-Apr

1890

KO

10

James Fallon


Boston

Massachusetts

USA

Feather

Chicago Daily Tribune, April 26, 1890; Chillicothe (Missouri) Morning Constitution, April 27, 1890; Racine (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, January 13, 1897. Gloves were worn, and Fallon was leading on points into the tenth round. Then he was knocked out. He was carried to the dressing room. He died three days later without regaining consciousness. Cause of death was concussion of the brain.

Frank La Rue

9-Jun

1890

KO


Harry McBride

30

San Francisco

California

USA

Heavy

Woodland (California) Daily Democrat, June 12, 1890; Trenton (New Jersey) Times, June 16, 1890. La Rue was charged with manslaughter.

Frank Garrard

3-Jul

1890

KO

5

Billy Brennan

21

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Light

Philadelphia Public Ledger, July 5, 1890; Sandusky Daily Register, July 5, 1890; Fort Wayne (Indiana) Sentinel, July 5, 1890; Syracuse (New York) Herald, July 6, 1890. The venue was the Battery D armory. During the first, Brennan was very active, but he also tired himself out. His seconds decided to fortify him with whiskey. Things went downhill from there, and the fight ended with Brennan grabbing on to Garrard, and then slumping to the floor. Cause of death was listed as concussion of the brain. Garrard and the seconds were arrested, but released the next day, after the injury was attributed to the fall rather than the blows.

Louis Bezenah

13-Feb

1890

KO

4

Tom James

22

Dallas

Texas

USA

Bantam

Dallas Morning News, February 14, 1890; New York Times, February 14, 1890; Chicago Daily Tribune, February 16, 1890; Fresno (California) Daily Republican, February 16, 1890; Newark (Ohio) Daily Advocate, February 17, 1890; Chuck Burroughs, Come Out Fighting: True Fight Tales for Fight Fans (Peoria, Illinois: Chuck Burroughs, 1977), 90. James spent the fight running. In the fourth, Bezenah struck James with a hard right to the neck. James went down. He remained unconscious, so was carried off the stage. Water was thrown on him, and he was left to recover while the sports returned to watch Jake Kilrain spar three rounds with Cleary. After that, there was some wrestling. James still had not recovered by the time the wrestling had ended, so a physician was sought. The physician arrived, but James still died about 11:30 p.m. that night. Cause of death was attributed to the “great excitement and exertion pending the contest,” and the principals were released on the grounds that there was no law regarding deaths that occurred in the course of properly licensed exhibitions. Bezenah was touring with William Muldoon and Jake Kilrain. Anyone who lasted 4 rounds with Bezenah got $25, so he specialized in doing fourth-round knockouts. At the time of this fight, he was 19 years old, and weighed about 137 pounds. In March 1891, a jealous suitor shot Bezenah twice in the stomach, and he died in April 1891 of the injuries. See Sandusky (Ohio) Daily Register, March 24, 1891, Mansfield (Ohio) Evening News, April 29, 1891, and Chicago Daily Tribune, February 15, 1890.

Jersey Spider

29-Aug

1890

KO


Peter Noud


New York

New York

USA

ND

Waukesha (Wisconsin) Journal, September 13, 1890

John “Jack” Burns

Feb/

1891

KO


Henry “Fox” McGlone

33

Natick

Massachusetts

USA

Heavy

Boston Daily Globe, February 4, 1891; Fitchburg (Massachusetts) Sentinel, February 24, 1891; Middletown (New York) Daily Press, May 27, 1891; Chicago Daily Tribune, December 8, 1897. McGlone died on February 24, 1891. McGlone had beaten Burns earlier in the month, by knockout, but died following a rematch. Cause of death was “congestion caused by blows upon the body next the heart.” McGlone left a widow and three children. This is noted because, although period newspapers called McGlone “Nicholas” or “Fox,” http://home.neo.rr.com/jmcglone/part5.htm notes that Henry McGlone of Natick was a pugilist of the John L. Sullivan era who had three children.

David Seville

24-Feb

1891

KO

18

A.B. “Tom” Tracey (Arthur Majesty)


Nelsonville

Ohio

USA

Bantam

Chicago Daily Tribune, February 26, 1891; Mansfield (Ohio) Evening News, February 25, 1891; Salem (Ohio) Daily News, January 14, 1892; Chuck Burroughs, Come Out Fighting: True Fight Tales for Fight Fans (Peoria, Illinois: Chuck Burroughs, 1977), 91. Two ounce gloves were worn. The purse was $200 to the winner. The venue was a large hall, with a capacity of about 800 persons. Moments before the knockout, Majesty said, “I can’t see any longer. Hit me if you want to.” Which Seville did. The autopsy showed a ruptured blood vessel at the base of the brain. Seville was subsequently convicted of prizefighting, and sentenced to a year in prison. The conviction was appealed, on the grounds that gloves were worn and Queensberry Rules were followed. Hence, to Seville’s attorney, this was not a prizefight. In its published decision, the Ohio Supreme Court ruled that it didn’t matter if Queensberry Rules or London Prize Ring rules were being used, or whether one called it a sparring match or a prizefight. Instead, “What was it, in plain English?” Consequently, Seville’s conviction for prizefighting was upheld. The relevant court case is Seville v. State, 15 L.R.A. 516, 49 Ohio St. 117, 27 W.L.B. 258, 30 N.E. 621; see also Robert Desty, ed., Lawyers’ Reports Annotated, Book XV (Rochester, New York: Lawyer’s Co-Operative Publishing Co., 1905), 518-520.

Harrison A. Tracy (Harry Tracy)

25-May

1891

KO

8

John “Jack” Burns


Lynn

Massachusetts

USA

Feather

Oshkosh (Wisconsin) Daily Northwestern, May 26, 1891; Chicago Daily Tribune, May 27, 1891; Lincoln (Nebraska) Evening News, May 27, 1891; Decatur (Illinois) Daily Republican, October 19, 1891. This was the same Jack Burns as was involved in the fatal fight with McGlone, of Natick (Middletown, New York, Daily Press, May 27, 1891). During this fight, Burns was hit hard in the temple and jaw. He went down. As he rose, Tracy hit him again, with what the Chicago Daily Tribune called “a sledgehammer blow on the head that would have felled an ox.” This time, Burns stayed down. Cause of death was a broken blood vessel in the brain. On October 19, 1891, Tracy was convicted of manslaughter.

William Daniels

16-Jul

1891

KO

7

James McCormick


Crystal Falls

Michigan

USA

Heavy

Oshkosh (Wisconsin) Daily Northwestern, July 20, 1891; Lincoln (Nebraska) Evening News, July 20, 1891; Iowa City (Iowa) Iowa Citizen, July 24, 1891; Oshkosh (Wisconsin) Daily Northwestern, October 10, 1891. The bout was fought with light gloves. McCormick was knocked down, and died a few hours later. Daniels and the seconds were arrested. NOTE: Galveston (Texas) Daily News, July 22, 1891, ran a story saying that McCormick was reported badly bruised, but alive, in Chicago, but this is unlikely, inasmuch as Daniels was not acquitted until October 9, 1891. (Waterloo, Iowa, Daily Courier, October 9, 1891.)

Harry Boyd

23-Jul

1891

KO

4

John Myford

20

Monongahela City

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, July 24, 1891; Salem (Ohio) Daily News, July 24, 1891; Middletown (New York) Daily Press, July 24, 1891. This was a bare-knuckle bout, and apparently a grudge match. But it was fought inside a roped ring, with witnesses. Myford was struck in the neck. He collapsed, and never regained consciousness.

John Swindelle

7-Aug

1891

KO


James Henney


Longsight

Manchester

England

ND

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, August 9, 1891; Galveston (Texas) Daily News, August 9, 1891; London Times, August 11, 1891. The fight was a prizefight, but there was neither a referee nor regular rounds. The fight had been going for about an hour when Henney was struck in the stomach. He said, “That’s a good one,” and then collapsed. He stood up, said he’d had enough, and then collapsed again. The cause of death was effusion of the brain. Swindelle was charged with manslaughter.

William Doyle

7-Feb

1891

KO

7

John Shafer

21

Seattle

Washington

USA

ND

New York Times, February 8, 1891. Prizefighting was illegal in Washington, so the promoters described the bout as amateur. Nonetheless, the length suggests that it was professional. Shafer was knocked out, and never regained consciousness.

Byrnie Murphy

20-Mar

1891

KO


Robert K. Willink

18

Savannah

Georgia

USA

ND

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, March 22, 1891. Cause of death was concussion of the brain. Willink was the son of a local railwayman.

ND

24-Jun

1891

Ldec


John Stevens


Hokitika


New Zealand

ND

Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, June 25, 1891. Stovens went to the dressing room, dressed, and went back into the room, where he collapsed. Death was almost instantaneous. Death was attributed to heart disease.

Bob Ferguson

19-Oct

1891

Wdec


Pat Killen

30

Chicago

Illinois

USA

Heavy

Chicago Daily Tribune, October 22, 1891; Newark (Ohio) Daily Advocate, October 22, 1891. Killen had been out of training for some time, and for the past year, he had worked as a saloonkeeper. The cause of death was given as erysipelas (a skin disease that can be fatal in the absence of antiobiotics).

William Smith

14-Dec

1892

KO


James Brown


New Orleans

Louisiana

USA

ND

Dallas Morning News, October 20, 1892. The fight was a grudge match fought under London Prize Ring rules. The knockdown followed a strike to the chest.

H.A. Smeltzer

11-Mar

1892

KO


Charles E. Lesh

17

Wells County (Bluffton)

Indiana

USA

ND

Washington Post, March 13, 1892; Traverse City (Michigan) Herald, March 17, 1892; Pennsylvania (Indiana) Indiana Progress, March 23, 1892; Ancestry.com, Indiana Deaths, 1882-1920 [database online]. Lesh was knocked down by a blow to the neck. He died a few minutes later.

David Ryan

26-Apr

1892

KO


Ambrose Seeley

24

New York

New York

USA

ND

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 27, 1892. The two men had a quarrel that they decided to settle using London Prize Ring rules. Seeley was downed by a blow to the neck. When he did not get up, the spectators fled.

Jack Keefe

2-Oct

1892

KO


George Roway (Billy the Kid Duffy)


Covington

Nebraska

USA

ND

Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1892; Plattsburgh (New York) Morning Telegram, October 5, 1892, http://esf.uvm.edu/vtbox/Historical.html. Duffy died within an hour of the fight’s end. The coroner found indications of heart disease. Keefe, the referee, and the seconds were arrested.

Jack Davis

8-Oct

1892

KO

8

Richard Barker (Dick Nolan)


Memphis

Tennessee

USA

Light

Galveston (Texas) Daily News, October 11, 1892; Galveston (Texas) Daily News, October 13, 1892. Five-ounce gloves were worn. The fight was probably even into the sixth round. In the seventh, both men were visibly tired, so no apparent damage was done. Then, during the eighth, Davis hit Nolan with a left to the chin, and Nolan fell unconscious. Nolan died the following day, about noon. Cause of death was listed as a burst blood vessel in the brain.

Young Ross

17-Dec

1892

KO

12

Scotty Stewart


Sydney

New South Wales

Australia

ND

Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, December 19, 1892; Hawarea and Normanby (New Zealand) Star, December 20, 1892. Stewart died shortly after the fight ended. Cause of death was laceration and compression of the brain. NOTE: US newspapers sometimes reversed who died. See, for example, Racine (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, January 13, 1897.

Robert Rothery

28-Aug

1892

KO


William Asquith


Leeds

West Yorkshire

England

ND

(Glasgow) Scotsman, September 2, 1892. Rothery was charged with manslaughter.

Soldier Clayson

12-Sep

1892

KO


Langtry


Northampton

East Midlands

England

ND

Los Angeles Times, September 13, 1892. Both men were badly battered, and Langtry died within an hour after the fight.

John McGarry

17-Oct

1892

KO

4

William J. Neary


New York

New York

USA

ND

Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Journal, October 29, 1892; Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, March 2, 1906

Charles Bell

13-Mar

1892

Wfoul

23

Wallace “Pearl” Henderson

16

Portland

Oregon

USA

ND

Portland Oregonian, March 14, 1892; Portland Oregonian, March 17, 1892. The two youths, aged 15 and 16, had a contest to see who was the better boxer. During the fight, both landed many good punches. After the decision was declared, Henderson collapsed into a coma. A doctor was summoned, and he arrived with the half hour, but it was too late. Cause of death was listed as “insufficiency of the contractable power of the right heart.”

William “Kid” Robinson

3-Aug

1893

Draw

22

Bobby Taylor (Lon Taylor, Sailor Kid)


Denver

Colorado

USA

Feather

Aspen (Colorado) Weekly Times, August 5, 1893; Trenton (New Jersey) Times, August 5, 1893; Newark (Ohio) Daily Advocate, August 5, 1893. Taylor was white and Robinson was black, so the referee’s declaration of a “draw” at the end of 22 rounds suggests that Taylor was losing badly. The referee was the famous Western lawman Bat Masterson, and after this decision, that paragon of frontier law enforcement promptly skipped town rather than face trial.

Yankee

ND

1893

Draw

12

Jim Lewis


Sydney

New South Wales

Australia

ND

Manuel Velazquez collection

Dal Hawkins

24-Feb

1893

KO

15

William “Swede” Miller

21

San Francisco

California

USA

Feather

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, February 26, 1893; Chicago Daily Tribune, February 26, 1893; Waterloo (Iowa) Daily Courier, March 2, 1893. Miller was never really in the fight, and he was knocked out in the fifteenth. Cause of death was concussion of the brain. Hawkins was arrested.

Joe Dunfee

4-Apr

1893

KO

7

Dan Donovan


Maple Bay

New York

USA

Middle

Chicago Daily Tribune, April 6, 1893; Syracuse (New York) Evening Herald, April 6, 1893; Olean (New York) Democrat, April 7, 1893. Donovan was knocked down three times in the final round. He died the following day. Cause of death was blood between the membranes of the brain. Donovan’s brother Jack was also a prizefighter, and on April 6, 1894, Jack Donovan also suffered significant brain injury while boxing. See (Phoenix) Arizona Republican, April 8, 1894.

Harry Bull

15-May

1893

KO

3

Harry Edward Wiltshire


London

London

England

Heavy

Trenton (New Jersey) Times, May 17, 1893; London Times, May 20, 1893. Eight ounce gloves were worn. Death was from compression of the brain following rupture of a vein.

John Henry Johnson

23-Oct

1893

KO

7

Emmett Burke


Gloucester

New Jersey

USA

Light

Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, March 2, 1906; http://www.boxrec.com

George (or Joe) Green

4-Feb

1893

KO

2

George W. Goodrich (Ed Williams)


New Orleans

Louisiana

USA

ND

Melissa Haley, “A Storm of Blows,” Common-Place, 3:2 (January 2003), http://www.common-place.org/vol-03/no-02/haley/haley-2.shtml; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, February 4, 1893; New York Times, February 10, 1893; Newark (Ohio) Daily Advocate, February 17, 1893. The stage floor was wet with blood. Goodrich fell on the wet surface, and broke his neck. The death was ruled an accident, but the investigation does not seem to have been especially thorough, perhaps because the promoters were well-known white men from Louisiana while the deceased was a black man from Louisville, Kentucky. The venue for the bout was the Olympic Club, and soon after this death, the State took the Olympic Club to court, saying that its gloved boxing matches violated state laws against prize fighting. The court case was State v. Olympic Club, 24 L.R.A. 452, 15 So 190, April 1894. In this case, the court ruled that state laws against bare-knuckled prizefighting did not apply to gloved contests sponsored by regularly chartered athletic clubs. Instead, if the state wanted to ban gloved contests as well as bare-knuckle prizefights, then new laws would be required.

ND

28-Oct

1893

KO


Charles Cunningham


Lady Barkly


New Zealand

ND

Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, November 1, 1893; North Otago (New Zealand) Times, November 3, 1893. Cunningham died October 31. Cause of death was attributed to internal injuries.

ND

14-Mar

1893

KO

3

Fred Wright


Grand Rapids

Michigan

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, March 15, 1893; Hamilton (Ohio) Daily Republican, March 16, 1893. Cause of death was listed as concussion of the brain.

Jack Nicolson

11-Apr

1893

W disq

25

Richard Campbell Forgie

21

Auckland


New Zealand

Light

Wellington (New Zealand) Evening Post, May 30, 1893; Otago (New Zealand) Witness, June 1, 1893. The bout was fought with gloves, for money. Cause of death was brain injuries. The judge advised the jury to consider whether the fight violated laws against prizefighting. To the judge’s surprise, the grand jury responded with a verdict of no bill. The reason was that the police had been present and did not stop the fight. Thus, the jury decided that do what the judge instructed was against their duty. Immediately after dismissal, Nicholson caught a ship to Sydney.

Jimmy Lindsey

9-Aug

1894

KO


Arthur Robbins (Fletcher Robinson)


Plattsmouth

Nebraska

USA

Welter

Frederick (Maryland) News, August 21, 1894; Ogden (Utah) Standard-Examiner, August 14, 1894; Los Angeles Times, March 25, 1895; Winnipeg (Manitoba) Morning Free Press, March 23, 1895; Lincoln (Nebraska) Evening News, November 28, 1895; Frederick (Maryland) News, December 6, 1895. Robbins (Robinson) died of his injuries on August 14, 1894, and in March 1895, Lindsay, of Omaha, was sentenced to 2 years in the state penitentiary for his part in the death. The referee, G.V. Griswold, was the sports editor of a local paper. Griswold was also charged, but he was exonerated in December 1895.

Robert “Ruby Bob” Fitzsimmons

16-Nov

1894

KO

1

Cornelius “Con” Riordan

31

Syracuse

New York

USA

Light Heavy

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, November 17, 1894; Reno Evening Gazette, November 17, 1894; Syracuse (New York) Daily Standard, November 17, 1894; Ogden (Utah) Standard-Examiner, November 17, 1894; Syracuse (New York) Herald, February 14, 1933; Syracuse (New York) Herald Journal, May 19, 1989. Riordan was Fitzsimmons’ sparring partner, and he had not boxed competitively since losing to Jack Slavin in June 1892. Thus, Fitzsimmons normally took it easy on Riordan, who was also a heavy drinker. After being told of the death, Fitzsimmons said, “I knew he had been drinking hard, but did not know he was in such a condition... The blow that caused the trouble was as light as I could make it, I merely slapping him with the back of my hand. He fell down then rose and staggered around... When he fell headlong, I thought he was faking, and was thoroughly disgusted.” The death certificate listed the cause of death as “hemorrhage within the cranial cavity, causing compression of the brain.” The clot was on the right side of the brain, very deep. Fitzsimmons was arrested on a charge of manslaughter in the first degree, but was later acquitted. Fitzsimmons bought the burial plot for Riordan, in Section 51 of Oakwood Cemetery, and helped carry the casket, but no one ever bought Riordan a gravestone.

Maurice “Dummy” Winters

16-Nov

1894

KO

2

George Smith


London

London

England

Feather

Cumberland (Maryland) Evening Times, December 11, 1894; London Times, December 19, 1894; (Winnipeg) Manitoba Morning Free Press, January 9, 1895. Winters was a deaf-mute, hence the name. Cause of death was complications following surgery for a broken jaw -- gangrene set in, and Smith died on December 10, 1894. The gloves worn weighed 6-1/4 ounces.

George Lavigne (Saginaw Kid)

14-Dec

1894

KO

18

Andy Bowen

27

New Orleans

Louisiana

USA

Feather

Chicago Daily Tribune, December 16, 1894; Fort Wayne (Indiana) Sentinel, December 15, 1894; William A. Adams, “New Orleans as the National Center of Boxing,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 39 (1956), 92-112; New Orleans Daily Picayune, December 15, 1894; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, December 16, 1894; Melissa Haley, “A Storm of Blows,” Common-Place, 3:2 (January 2003), http://www.common-place.org/vol-03/no-02/haley/haley-3.shtml. According to Haley, “In the eighteenth round, Bowen ‘staggered around like a drunken man,’ clinched continually to save himself, and tried to avoid Lavigne’s blows. A right caught him in the jaw, though, and Bowen fell back and ‘his head hit the wooden floor with a thud which could have been heard a block away.’ The ring, as it turned out, was not padded; it was simply wooden planks, with a canvas tarp stretched across the top.” Bowen died the following morning without regaining consciousness. No doctors were called because of fears of adverse publicity. Lavigne and promoters were charged with manslaughter, but charges were dismissed after the coroner said the mechanism of injury was the fall rather than the blow.

Silas Taft

2-Jan

1894

KO

1

Porter Scott

18

Des Moines

Iowa

USA

ND

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, January 3, 1894; (Dublin) Irish Times, January 5, 1894; (Correctionville, Iowa) Sioux Valley News, January 11, 1894. The bout took place at the Essex Athletic Club. After being struck in the neck, Scott fell to the floor, where he died within minutes. Cause of death was concussion of the brain, and attributed to the fall. The death caused the state governor to call for an end to all prize fights in Iowa.

John Pugh

21-Mar

1894

KO


Michael Goppert


Utica

New York

USA

ND

Bismarck (North Dakota) Daily Tribune, March 23, 1894; Olean (New York) Democrat, March 24, 1894. Goppert was knocked to the floor, and carried to the hospital.

Jimmy Kennard (St. Paul Kid)

13-Jul

1894

KO

4

Gene Flanagan


Chicago

Illinois

USA

Feather

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, July 13, 1894. The men fought in the back of a saloon. Two billiards tables had been moved for the occasion, and there were about 70 spectators. Flanagan was diagnosed with a fractured skull.

ND

17-May

1894

KO


Rees


Aberdare


Wales

ND

(Winnipeg) Manitoba Morning Free Press, May 19, 1894. Cause of death was listed as skull fracture.

Jimmy Carney

15-Jun

1894

KO

3

Tommy Miller


Meyers Lake

Ohio

USA

Light

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, June 16, 1894.

ND

15-Mar

1894

Ldec

3

Harry B. Sapp


Renovo

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Trenton (New Jersey) Times, March 16, 1894. After losing the match, Sapp went home. Next morning, he was found dead in his bed.

Frank Klein

21-Jul

1895

KO

5

Louis Schmidt Jr.


Milwaukee

Wisconsin

USA

ND

Chicago Daily Tribune, July 23, 1895; Los Angeles Times, July 23, 1895; (Albert Lea, Minnesota) Freeborn County Standard, July 31, 1895; Stevens Point (Wisconsin) Daily Journal, March 14, 1896; Fort Wayne (Indiana) News, March 14, 1896. The fight took place at a roadhouse. Schmidt was tiring. He was struck, and knocked into the chairs. Klein and the spectators fled. Schmidt died the following day, and on March 14, 1896, Klein was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to five years.

John Peterson

2-Nov

1895

KO


Ralph W. Eldridge

25

Natick

Massachusetts

USA

ND

San Francisco Chronicle, November 3, 1895; North Adams (Massachusetts) Transcript, November 4, 1895. Eldridge was knocked down by a blow to the left ear. While falling, he reportedly struck his head on a table. He died before medical assistance arrived. Peterson was arrested.

Bob Thompson

28-Jul

1896

KO

12

Thomas Carter


Salt Lake City

Utah

USA

Welter

Newark (Ohio) Daily Advocate, July 30, 1896; Marble Rock (Iowa) Weekly, August 6, 1896. Thompson knocked out Carter with a blow to the chin. Carter’s head hit the floor hard, and he died two days later without regaining consciousness. Thompson was held for manslaughter. In his book Black Dynamite, Nat Fleischer erroneously identified the deceased as Jim “Coast Comet” Carter.

John Shagner

3-Jan

1896

KO

10

Henry Rodriguez

20

New York

New York

USA

ND

Bangor (Maine) Daily Whig and Courier, January 6, 1896; Trenton (New Jersey) Evening Times, October 15, 1896; Bangor (Maine) Daily Whig and Courier, October 31, 1896. The fight took place on a canal boat, under Queensberry Rules. The purse was $10. Rodriguez was carried home semi-conscious, bleeding from nose and ears. He died a few hours later. Cause of death was listed as skull fracture. Shagner, age 16, and several seconds were found guilty of manslaughter. Sentence was suspended.

Henry Pluckfelder

8-Feb

1896

KO


Frederick Schlechter

40

Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Los Angeles Times, February 10, 1896; Oakland Tribune, February 10, 1896; Titusville (Pennsylvania) Morning Herald, February 11, 1896; Waukesha (Wisconsin) Freeman, February 13, 1896; Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Census Place: Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Roll: T9_1176; Family History Film: 1255176; Page: 167.3000; Enumeration District: 302; Image: 0337. A prizefight was staged at Schlechter’s mattress factory. Schlechter walked home after the fight, where he died of injuries on February 10, 1896. Cause of death was attributed to a skull fracture received during a fall. Pluckfelder, an ex-policeman, was arrested.

Patrick Nolan

7-May

1896

KO

11

John Houlihan


Farmington

Connecticut

USA

ND

Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1896; Steubenville (Ohio) Daily Herald, May 8, 1896; Fitchburg (Massachusetts) Daily Sentinel, May 12, 1896. Death was originally attributed to sunstroke, but after the autopsy, the coroner ruled that death was due to hemorrhage of the brain.

Charles Turner

1-Apr

1896

KO

17

Jesse Clark (Texas Terror)


Memphis

Tennessee

USA

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) Weekly Sentinel, April 8, 1896. Turner was black. Clark was white. A warrant was issued for Turner’s arrest.

Maurer

Apr/

1896

KO


Chappie Moran


Sheffield

South Yorkshire

England

Bantam

London Times, April 8, 1896. Moran slipped, and Maurer fell on him. Moran died of internal injuries.

William “Shorty” Wright

18-Feb

1897

KO

1

Ben Coleman

18

Cincinnati

Ohio

USA

Fly

Los Angeles Times, February 19, 1897; Washington Post, February 19, 1897. Both boxers were “young colored boys” put into the ring because no one else was available for a preliminary bout. The blow that knocked Coleman down was not especially hard, so the crowd thought the knockout a fake. Coleman died two hours later. Wright was also known as Rodgers.

Leslie Pearce

20-Apr

1897

KO

14

Billy Vernon (Haverstraw Brickmaker)

27

Athens

Pennsylvania

USA

Light

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, April 22, 1897; Brooklyn Daily Eagle, May 3, 1897; Hornellsville (New York) Weekly Tribune, April 23, 1897. Vernon was struck at least four heavy blows over the heart in the fourteenth.Then he fell over, face first, without being struck, and he died a few hours later. The left side of Vernon’s body was swollen and discolored in the region of the heart. Cause of death was concussion of the brain. Pearce was arrested.

Joseph Henry Williams

1-Jul

1897

KO

16

Michael Kerwin

19

Birmingham

West Midlands

England

Fly (6 stone 7)

Liverpool (England) Courier, July 5, 1897; Bristol (England) Times and Mirror, July 30, 1897; Glasgow (Scotland), July 12, 1897; Glasgow (Scotland) Scotsman, July 30, 1897; Glasgow (Scotland), Scotsman July 31, 1897; R.G. Allanson-Winn, Boxing, London: A.D. Innes, 1897, 23-24. Kerwin was struck on the chin. He subsequently died. Cause of death was hemorrhage at the base of the brain. After hearing testimony, the judge ruled that “sparring matches with gloves, if fairly conducted, were not unlawful, and, consequently, if death occurred from a blow fairly given in a contest, the person delivering the blow could not be convicted of manslaughter.” Williams was aged 16.

William Catskill

2-Jan

1897

KO

9

Daniel Flanagan


Low Point

New York

USA

ND

Fort Wayne (Indiana) News, January 4, 1897; Waterloo (Iowa) Daily Courier, January 5, 1897; Lowell (Massachusetts) Sun, January 6, 1897. The community of Low Point is today known as Chelsea. The purse in the fight was $40. Both fighters were from Fishkill, but Catskill was “colored” and Flanagan was Irish, and there was a history of animosity between what the Fort Wayne paper called “the white and colored sporting factions of the town.” Catskill was arrested for prizefighting.

Mark Shaughnessy (Frank Connelly)

18-Mar

1897

KO

4

Christian Keilnecker

40

Philadelphia

Pennsylvania

USA

ND

Brooklyn Daily Eagle, March 20, 1897; New York Times, March 20, 1897; Boston Daily Globe, March 23, 1897. Syracuse (New York) Herald, May 16, 1923. During the fight, Kielnecker stumbled, and reportedly hit his head. The day after the fight, Keilnecker’s mother found him unconscious in his bed. The police were called, and Keilnecker was taken to the hospital. Before dying, he regained consciousness long enough to tell the police that he and Connelly (Shaugnessy) had been sparring in a room over a blacksmith’s shop. Connelly (Shaugnessy) was arrested, but released when the cause was attributed to the fall rather than blows. Shaugnessy was subsequently a manager or second during at least four fatal matches -- Dutch Neal vs. Harry Peppers, Tom Lansing vs. Jack Root, Harry Tenny vs. Frank Neil, and Alex Gdovin vs. Chiefy Johnson. Shaugnessy also refereed the Snailham-Crowe fight.

Matthew Semichy

21-Apr

1897

KO

14

Kid” Frank Evans


San Jose

California

USA

Light

Frederick (Maryland) News, April 23, 1897; Steubenville (Ohio) Herald, April 23, 1897; Dallas Morning News, April 23, 1897; Reno (Daily Nevada State Journal) April 23, 1897. Evans was hit on the chin, and his head struck the floor hard. He died the following morning without regaining consciousness. Visitors passed through the San Jose morgue all day to see the remains. Death was caused by concussion of the brain. Spelling of Semichy’s name from Ancestry.com. 1920 and 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line].

Butcher” John Thomas

16-May

1897

KO

13

Edward Augustus Collard


Rhondda


Wales

ND

Bristol (England) Times and Mirror, May 18, 1897, Bristol (England) Times and Mirror, August 25, 1897; (Glasgow) Scotsman, August 26, 1897. The two men were miners who had an argument and decided to settle it via a prizefight. Collard died two hours after the fight. The surviving principals were arrested on charges of manslaughter.

Ivor Thomas

23-Aug

1897

KO

8